Limitations in representation of physical processes prevent successful...

Travis, K. R., J. H. Crawford, G. Chen, C. E. Jordan, B. Nault, H. Kim, J. L. Jimenez, P. Campuzano-Jost, J. Dibb, J. H. Woo, Y. Kim, S. Zhai, X. Wang, E. McDuffie, G. Luo, F. Yu, S. Kim, I. J. Simpson, D. R. Blake, L. Chang, and M. J. Kim (2022), Limitations in representation of physical processes prevent successful simulation of PM2.5 during KORUS-AQ, Atmos. Chem. Phys., doi:10.5194/acp-22-7933-2022.

High levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) pollution in East Asia often exceed local air quality standards. Observations from the Korea–United States Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) field campaign in May and June 2016 showed that development of extreme pollution (haze) occurred through a combination of longrange transport and favorable meteorological conditions that enhanced local production of PM2.5 . Atmospheric models often have difficulty simulating PM2.5 chemical composition during haze, which is of concern for the development of successful control measures. We use observations from KORUS-AQ to examine the ability of the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to simulate PM2.5 composition throughout the campaign and identify the mechanisms driving the pollution event. At the surface, the model underestimates sulfate by −64 % but overestimates nitrate by +36 %. The largest underestimate in sulfate occurs during the pollution event, for which models typically struggle to generate elevated sulfate concentrations due to missing heterogeneous chemistry in aerosol liquid water in the polluted boundary layer. Hourly surface observations show that the model nitrate bias is driven by an overestimation of the nighttime peak. In the model, nitrate formation is limited by the supply of

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