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Solar forcing for CMIP6 (v3.2)

Matthes, K., B. Funke, M. Andersson, L. Barnard, J. Beer, P. Charbonneau, M. A. Clilverd, T. D. de Wit, M. Haberreiter, A. Hendry, C. H. Jackman, M. Kretzschmar, T. Kruschke, M. Kunze, U. Langematz, D. R. Marsh, A. Maycock, S. Misios, C. J. Rodger, A. A. Scaife, A. Seppälä, M. Shangguan, M. Sinnhuber, K. Tourpali, I. Usoskin, M. van de Kamp, P. Verronen, and S. Versick (2017), Solar forcing for CMIP6 (v3.2), Geosci. Model. Dev., 10, 2247-2302, doi:10.5194/gmd-10-2247-2017.

This paper describes the recommended solar forcing dataset for CMIP6 and highlights changes with respect to CMIP5. The solar forcing is provided for radiative properties, namely total solar irradiance (TSI), solar spectral irradiance (SSI), and the F10.7 index as well as particle forcing, including geomagnetic indices Ap and Kp, and ionization rates to account for effects of solar protons, electrons, and galactic cosmic rays. This is the first time that a recommendation for solar-driven particle forcing has been provided for a CMIP exercise. The solar forcing datasets are provided at daily and monthly resolution separately for the CMIP6 preindustrial control, historical (1850–2014), and future (2015–2300) simulations. For the preindustrial control simulation, both constant and time-varying solar forcing components are provided, with the latter including variability on 11-year and shorter timescales but no long-term changes. For the future, we provide a realistic scenario of what solar behavior could be, as well as an additional extreme Maunderminimum-like sensitivity scenario. This paper describes the forcing datasets and also provides detailed recommendations as to their implementation in current climate models.

For the historical simulations, the TSI and SSI time series are defined as the average of two solar irradiance models that are adapted to CMIP6 needs: an empirical one

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Atmospheric Composition Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP)