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Characteristics of Precipitating Convective Systems in the South Asian Monsoon

Romatschke, U., and R. Houze (2011), Characteristics of Precipitating Convective Systems in the South Asian Monsoon, J. Hydrometeorology, 12, 3-26, doi:10.1175/2010JHM1289.1.
Abstract: 

Eight years of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) data show how convective systems of different types contribute to precipitation of the South Asian monsoon. The main factor determining the amount of precipitation coming from a specific system is its horizontal size. Convective intensity and/or number of embedded convective cells further enhance its precipitation production. The precipitation of the monsoon is concentrated in three mountainous regions: the Himalayas and coastal ranges of western India and Myanmar. Along the western Himalayas, precipitation falls mainly from small, but highly convective systems. Farther east along the foothills, systems are more stratiform. These small and medium systems form during the day, as the monsoon flow is forced upslope. Nighttime cooling leads to downslope flow and triggers medium-sized systems at lower elevations. At the mountainous western coasts of India and Myanmar, small and medium systems are present throughout the day, as an orographic response to the southwesterly flow, with a slight superimposed diurnal cycle. Medium systems are favored over the eastern parts of the Arabian Sea and large systems are favored over the Bay of Bengal when an enhanced midlevel cyclonic circulation occurs over the northern parts of these regions. The systems forming upstream of coastal mountains over the Bay of Bengal are larger than those over the Arabian Sea, probably because of the moister conditions over the bay. The large systems over the bay exhibit a pronounced diurnal cycle, with systems forming near midnight and maximizing in midday.

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