Tropospheric ozone over the North Pacific from ozonesonde observations

Oltmans, S., B. J. Johnson, J. M. Harris, A. M. Thompson, H. Liu, C. Y. Chan, H. Vomël, T. Fujimoto, V. G. Brackett, W. L. Chang, J.-P. Chen, J. H. Kim, L. Y. Chan, and H.-W. Chang (2004), Tropospheric ozone over the North Pacific from ozonesonde observations, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D15S01, doi:10.1029/2003JD003466.

As part of the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) mission, ozonesondes were used to make ozone vertical profile measurements at nine locations in the North Pacific. At most of the sites there is a multiyear record of observations. From locations in the western Pacific (Hong Kong; Taipei; Jeju Island, Korea; and Naha, Kagoshima, Tsukuba, and Sapporo, Japan), a site in the central Pacific (Hilo, Hawaii), and a site on the west coast of the United States (Trinidad Head, California) both a seasonal and event specific picture of tropospheric ozone over the North Pacific emerges. Ozone profiles over the North Pacific generally show a prominent spring maximum throughout the troposphere. This maximum is tied to the location of the jet stream and its influence on stratosphere-troposphere exchange and the increase in photochemical ozone production through the spring. Prominent layers of enhanced ozone in the middle and upper troposphere north of about 30°N seem to be more closely tied to stratospheric intrusions while biomass burning leads to layers of enhanced ozone in the lower and upper troposphere at Hong Kong (22°N) and Taipei (25°N). The lower free tropospheric layers at Hong Kong are associated with burning in SE Asia, but the upper layer may be associated with either equatorial Northern Hemisphere burning in Africa or SE Asian biomass burning. In the boundary layer at Taipei very high mixing ratios of ozone were observed that result from pollution transport from China in the spring and local urban pollution during the summer. At the ozonesonde site near Tokyo (Tsukuba, 36°N) very large enhancements of ozone are seen in the boundary layer in the summer that are characteristic of urban air pollution. At sites in the mid and eastern Pacific the signature of transport of polluted air from Asia is not readily identifiable from the ozonesonde profile. This is likely due to the more subtle signal and the fact that from the ozone profile and meteorological data by themselves it is difficult to identify such a signal. During the TRACE-P intensive campaign period (February–April 2001), tropospheric ozone amounts were generally typical of those seen in the long-term records of the stations with multiyear soundings. The exception was the upper troposphere over Hong Kong and Taipei where ozone amounts were lower in 2001.

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Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP)