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1996-04-22

96/04/22 CART site activity

 

Meteorology at the Central Facility

Weather Conditions from Site Operators Log

 

Visiting Instruments at Central Facilities

 

 

 

CART Instrument Operations at Central Facilities

Key: O = operational, X = down or degraded

  • RASS, 50 MHz, (hourly): X
  • RASS, 915 MHz, (hourly): O
  • BSRN: X
  • SIROS: O
  • SMOS, (24 hrs): O
  • SWATS (24 hrs): O
  • EBBR, (24 hrs): O
  • WSI, (every 10 min.) X
  • MWR, (24 hrs): O
  • IRT: X
  • MPL, (24 hrs): O
  • BLC, (24 hrs): O
  • AERI, (24 hrs): O
  • SORTI, (daytime, sunny): O
  • Raman Lidar (daytime): X
  • 60M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M IRT: X
  • 25M MultiFilter Radiometer: X
  • 25M Upwelling IR: X
  • 25M Upwelling Solar: X
  • 10M IRT: O
  • 10M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • Aerosol System: X
  • Radiosondes, (Every 3 hrs, from 1:30 UTC): O

 

CART Instrument Operations at Boundary Facilities

There are four staffed Boundary Facilities, each having Balloon Borne Sounding Systems (BBSS) and MicroWave Radiometers (MWR). During the IOP period, sondes are launched every three hours round the clock, starting at 5:30 GMT (12:30 CST). The sites are listed below. Times listed following a site indicate questionable data or failed sonde launches. Weather conditions are recorded in the Boundary Facilities Site Operator's Log.

  • Hillsboro, KS (BF-1): Okay
  • Vici, OK (BF-4): Okay
  • Morris, OK (BF-5): Okay
  • Purcell, OK (BF-6): Okay

 

CART Instrumentation at Extended Facilities

There are numerous unstaffed Extended Facilities. The specific instrumentation at the extended facilities varies from site to site, but generally includes a flux station (either an Energy Balance Bowen Ration (EBBR) system or an Eddy Correlation (ECOR) system), a Solar and InfraRed Observing System (SIROS), and a Standard Meteorology Observing Station (SMOS). For the locations of the Extended Facilities, and their suite of instrumentation, see the table and map of the Extended CART site. The comments below indicate specific data streams with identified problems.

  • Problem at Extended Facility:
  • E1: ECOR
  • E2: SIROS
  • E3: SIROS
  • E7: SIROS
  • E10: SIROS
  • E12: SIROS
  • E13: SIROS
  • E16: ECOR
  • E22: SIROS

 

Key Comments/Observations related to flights

 

1996-04-21

The DC-8 and ER-2 flew a coordinated mission over the CART site to measure radiation and to profile optically thick cirrus, and over Texas to measure convective cloud inflow and outflow. For the radiation part, both the ER-2 and DC-8 flew up and down wind legs over the CART site ending with the DC-8 near the cirrus base in position to ascend in altitude for cirrus profiling. Although, the DC-8 made numerous passes through its own contrails it was unable to remain in any of them due to the low visibility provided by the cirrus. The ER-2 reported seeing many contrails including those of the DC-8. Flying south to Texas, the DC-8 flew around an isolated convective cell to compare the chemistry and aerosols of the convective inflow and outflow, at high altitudes, to that in the boundary layer. The ER-2 reported turbulence over the convective cloud tops.

Highlights


Flight Reports

ER-2 Flight: 96106

Date: April 21, 1996

Mission: Cirrus and persistent contrails over ARM CART site.

Mission Objectives

Observe cirrus clouds of various ages and contrails in the presence of cirrus. In situ cloud sampling with the DC-8 with ground-based uplooking and ER-2 based downlooking characterization of cirrus and contrails. Investigate differences in the radiative signature of contrails and natural cirrus. Flight plans support combined ER-2 remote sensing and DC-8 in situ cloud microphysics studies.

Flight Summary

Take-off time was 1655 UTC and landing 2350 UTC. ER-2 flew 240 and 60 degree oriented lines (approximately 110 n mi long) over the ARM CART site (36 36.3'N 97 29.1'W) in coordination with the DC-8. ER-2 was at the CART site at 1815 UTC and the cirrus was moderate. On the 1823 to 1840 UTC the cirrus had thickened (could barely see the ground) and was extensive. During the later part of the cooridnated flight with the DC-8 the clouds over the ARM site began to break-up. DC-8 made vertical profiles of the clouds.

ER-2 ended coordinated pattern with the DC-8 at 2138 to overfly convection in vicinity of the ARM site. Convective overflights were of mature storms except the last leg when he flew over a storm that was just beginning to have cirrus blow-off. Location and times of thunderstorm runs were 36:09N 97:46W (2138 UTC) to 38:00N 94:19W (2207 UTC); 38:0N 94:10W (2213 UTC) to 37:55 N 90:45 (2225 UTC) to 36:42N 96:13W (2237 UTC) to 36:00N 97:27W (2248 UTC) to 35:48N 98:17W (2253 UTC) to 37:37N 97:00W.

Highlights

Lots of cirrus and contrails (including that of the DC-8) reported by ground observes at the ARM CART site. Overflew extended contrail toward end of coordinated runs with the DC-8. Overflew cold convective tops with the HIS and MIR. Many passes over the ARM CART.

CLS observed a pileus cloud during ER-2 runs over convection.

Instrument Status

  • MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS): Operated. Good data collected on first tape. At 2124 MAS stopped recording data on second tape.
  • Cloud Aerosol Lidar System (CALS): Operated. Good data collected on first tape, problems recording on 2nd tape.
  • High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS): Operated. Good data collected.
  • Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer(MIR): Operated. Good data collected.
  • Tilt Scan CCD Camera (TSCC): Operated. Camera shutter problems.
  • Radiation Measuring System (RAMS): Operated. Good data collected.
  • RC-10 Camera: Operated (black and white visible film- 6 inch lens) ran out of film at 2118.

Additional Pilot Notes: ER-2 made a contrail on ascent.Commercial aircraft contrail at 1812 UTC. During legs between 2045-2103 and 2109-2129 the ER-2 flew over the DC-8 traveling in the opposite direction. Followed a long contrail (50-100 n. mi) during the 2109-2129 UTC leg. Circle rings of DC-8 spiral run near the end of the coordinated segment were visible from the ER-2. While over mature storms did have an "elevator ride" but not too much deviation in altitude. Reports of thunderstorm tops near 57K feet were consistent with pilot's observations. Growing cell had about 45 K feet.

 

 

Mission Summary

DC-8 SUCCESS flight #207 [960221] (scientists:Brian Toon, Danielle Jacob)

Objective: Our first objective is to profile a multilayer cloud structure over the CART site to provide ground truth for the radar. Our second objective is to make persistent contrails with the DC-8 for the ER-2 to observe and for us to sample. Our third objective is to sample the outflow of air from a convective cloud and compare that with boundary layer air so that we can see how aerosols in the upper troposphere, processed by cloud, compare with those in the boundary layer.

Instruments: All of the instruments are functional.

Meteorology expected: We expect high, middle and low clouds over the CART site. We also expect a line of convection near the Texas, Oklahoma border with isolated cells possible near us.

Flight plan: The plan is to pick a point about 15 min. upwind of the CART site and to fly constant altitude legs between that point and the CART site. First we will fly a leg near 20kft below cloud deck for the radiation instruments. Then we will fly a leg near 25kft for maximum radar return. Then we will fly a leg near 30kft at cloud top. Then we will fly multiple legs near the trop to make contrails. Over the CART site we will fly 3 360 degree turns so that we can sample the contrail. At the downwind point we will turn and try to fly up the contrail. After about three hours we will look for an isolated thunderhead, and fly around it at the altitude of the anvil. Next we will circle about 20kft. Finally we will fly a leg in the boundary layer.

Report on meteorology observed: The meteorology was close to predicted. There were low level clouds below 10kft over the CART site. Then a middle level cirrus from about 18-30 kft. Next a thin cirrus near the trop at about 35 kft. There were clear gaps between the cloud layers. The middle level cirrus was fairly uniform. In the afternoon a line of convection developed near the CART site and eventually moved over the CART site. We did find an isolated developing cell with an anvil about 30 miles long. The cloud top was near 40kft and the anvil tip near 29kft

Report on flight plan as flown: We flew the fight as planned. We flew legs near 16, 24, and 31kft based on CART reports on cloud base, max. radar return and cloud top. Then we made contrails near 35 and 36kft. Although we did make many passes through our contrail we were not able to see it well enough to remain within it. We also did a flight around the cumulus. We circled the top which did not allow long enough to sample the outflow air with the slowest sensors. However, we did not detect much air flowing out. Evidently the cloud was still spreading. So we may not be able to sample the processed aerosol this way.

Report on instrument performance:

  • BALLENTHIN: Operational
  • BAUMGARDNER: worked fine.
  • BRUNE: Fine.
  • CHAN: Good performance
  • COGGIOLA: Good
  • COOPER: Worked fine. Still having problem with low temperatures.
  • DADS: fine
  • FERRY: Worked fine.
  • GARY: Instrument performed well.
  • GERBER: Looks great.
  • HAGEN: fine
  • HALLET: Fine.
  • HEYMSFIELD: Looked fine.
  • HUDSON: Worked fine.
  • LAWSON: Worked fine.
  • RODGERS: Everything okay. Possible minor air leak in CN and IN.
  • SACHSE: Worked fine.
  • TALBOT: Worked fine.
  • TWOHY: Performed well.
  • UTHE: Worked fine
  • VALERO:
  • WEINHEIMER: Worked great

 


96/04/21 CART site activity

 

Meteorology at the Central Facility

Weather Conditions from Site Operators Log
Extensive altocumulus mid-morning gave way to variable cirrus fibratus cloud conditions ranging from dense fallstreaks occasionally down to 5.5 km to thin (bluish) detached cirrostratus layer at 11.0 km. Low level convection with local rain developed rapidly mid-pm.

 

Visiting Instruments at Central Facilities

 

 

 

CART Instrument Operations at Central Facilities

Key: O = operational, X = down or degraded

  • RASS, 50 MHz, (hourly): X
  • RASS, 915 MHz, (hourly): O
  • BSRN: O
  • SIROS: O
  • SMOS, (24 hrs): O
  • SWATS (24 hrs): O
  • EBBR, (24 hrs): O
  • WSI, (every 10 min.) O
  • MWR, (24 hrs): O
  • IRT: X
  • MPL, (24 hrs): O
  • BLC, (24 hrs): O
  • AERI, (24 hrs): O
  • SORTI, (daytime, sunny): O
  • Raman Lidar (daytime): O
  • 60M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M IRT: X
  • 25M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • 25M Upwelling IR: O
  • 25M Upwelling Solar: O
  • 10M IRT: O
  • 10M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • Aerosol System: O
  • Radiosondes, (Every 3 hrs, from 1:30 UTC): O

 

CART Instrument Operations at Boundary Facilities

There are four staffed Boundary Facilities, each having Balloon Borne Sounding Systems (BBSS) and MicroWave Radiometers (MWR). During the IOP period, sondes are launched every three hours round the clock, starting at 5:30 GMT (12:30 CST). The sites are listed below. Times listed following a site indicate questionable data or failed sonde launches. Weather conditions are recorded in the Boundary Facilities Site Operator's Log.

  • Hillsboro, KS (BF-1): Okay
  • Vici, OK (BF-4): Okay
  • Morris, OK (BF-5): Okay
  • Purcell, OK (BF-6): Okay

 

CART Instrumentation at Extended Facilities

There are numerous unstaffed Extended Facilities. The specific instrumentation at the extended facilities varies from site to site, but generally includes a flux station (either an Energy Balance Bowen Ration (EBBR) system or an Eddy Correlation (ECOR) system), a Solar and InfraRed Observing System (SIROS), and a Standard Meteorology Observing Station (SMOS). For the locations of the Extended Facilities, and their suite of instrumentation, see the table and map of the Extended CART site. The comments below indicate specific data streams with identified problems.

  • Problem at Extended Facility:
  • E1: ECOR
  • E2: SIROS
  • E3: SIROS
  • E10: SIROS
  • E12: SIROS
  • E16: ECOR
  •  

 

Key Comments/Observations related to flights

The upper cirrus layer at 11.0 km appeared to contain contrails: we reported this layer height to Salina to set up a contrail mission following cirrus profiling. (Only short contrail segments were noted from the DC-8 in the lower cirrus.) The initial DC-8 pass was directly over the CART site and flown accurately into the layer wind, such that the persisting contrail remained overhead as it advected and spread for several minutes. Persisting contrail loops were then made to the NW of the site, but these were poorly targeted and did not drift over the site. Local convection began at this point. Later on upon exiting the area, DC-8 contrails were noted again over the site and to the NW, but developing showers and poor targeting prevented ground-based sampling.> At end of DC-8 mission, a long contrail was laid down into the wind but this was blocked from ground-based remote cloud sensing (gbrcs) by developing low clouds.

 


1996-04-20

The DC-8 and ER-2 flew a coordinated cirrus cloud profiling mission over the CART site, where only patchy, optically thin cirrus (and halos) were observed during the entire day. Both ER-2 and DC-8 flew up/down-wind legs over the CART site. Only the first leg was coordinated for a radiation measurement time-series, with the DC-8 below the cirrus deck. For the cirrus profiling the DC-8 ascended in an up/down-wind flight-leg racetrack pattern and descended in slow spirals near the CART-site. The ER-2 observed lots of cirrus and contrails over the CART site. One of the contrails extended over 37km. The DC-8 observed cirrus over CART site. Ground observations indicated that the DC-8 made persistent contrails in temperatures as high as -38C in patchy cirrus. The T39 flew a test flight to test the chemical ionization mass spectrometer system.

Highlights


Flight Reports

ER-2 Flight: 96105

Date: April 20, 1996

Mission: Cirrus and persistent contrails over ARM CART site.

Mission Objectives

Observe cirrus clouds of various ages and contrails in the presence of cirrus. In situ cloud sampling with the DC-8 with ground-based uplooking and ER-2 based downlooking characterization of cirrus and contrails. Investigate differences in the radiative signature of contrails and natural cirrus. Flight plans support combined ER-2 remote sensing and DC-8 in situ cloud microphysics studies.

Flight Track

Flight Summary

ER-2 ENE-WSW oriented lines over the ARM CART site. First two legs are approximately 115 nm long with the ARM CART (36 36.3'N 97 29.1'W) site near the WSW end of the leg. This first leg was coordinated with the DC-8 starting at 37 32.6 N 95 23.7W (060 at 115 from ARM site) with the second point at the ARM site. After two legs the ER-2 heading was adjusted to approximately 80 and 100 degrees with straight line patterns centered on the ARM site. Flight path of the ER-2 was again adjusted around 1925 (during the ninth horizontal flight leg) to align with the DC-8 (headings of approximately 60 and 240 degrees).

Cirrus in westerly flow aloft of varying thickness over ARM CART site and along ER-2 flight line. DC-8 made vertical profiles of the clouds.

Highlights

Lots of cirrus and contrails reported by the ARM CART site during this mission. Twelve overpasses of ARM CART site (approximately 1604, 1618, 1657, 1721, 1745, 1808, 1833, 1856, 1921, 1945, 2009 and 2033 UTC).

At approximately 1556 UTC the MAS observed a large contrail extending across the entire swath (37 km).

Instrument Status

  • MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS): Operated. Good data collected. Stopped recording at 1942.
  • Cloud Aerosol Lidar System (CALS): Operated. Good data collected
  • High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS): Operated. Good data collected.
  • Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer(MIR): Operated. Good data collected.
  • Tilt Scan CCD Camera (TSCC): Operated. Good data collected, data disk filled before end of flight.
  • Radiation Measuring System (RAMS): Operated. Good data collected.
  • RC-10 Camera: Operated (black and white visible film- 6 inch lens).

Additional Pilot Notes:. During first two legs that were coordinated with the DC-8, conditions were mostly clear--the DC-8 was making broken contrails that were visible from the ER-2. At the end of flight ARM site was mostly overcast, though breaks in the cloud did exist. Contrails were visible during mission. Circle rings of DC-8 spiral run near the end of the mission were visible from the ER-2.

 

DC-8 Mission Summary

The basic flight went very well. All of the instruments are functioning, with mainly small problems left to be worked out. After, the two initial (with the ER-2 coordinated) radiation flight legs, with the DC-8 below the cirrus cloud deck, the DC-8 twice profiled the cirrus - stepwise ascending via horizontal up-/down wind flightlegs with CART-site overpasses and descending in Lagrangian loops near the CART-site. As there were no mid-level and low-level clouds this flight promises to be a great case (1) for the validation of microphysical properties predicted by from remote sensing measurements and (2) for an improved understanding between cirrus microphysic and radiative transfer. The DC-8 layed contrails above 27000ft and temperatures as high as -38 C. These contrails were frequently persistent in or near areas of patchy cirrus. We had a difficult time to find our own contrail during loops or during return legs as the contrail remnants were frequently obscured by older cirrus.
DC-8 SUCCESS flight #206 [960206] (scientists: Brian Toon and Eric Jensen)

 

Mission Objective

The objective of this flight is to thoroughly investigate a cirrus cloud system over the CART site. Ice crystals in the cirrus will be sampled at several levels. Coordinated legs with the ER-2 above the DC-8 will be used to study the radiative properties of the cirrus. In addition, we will evaluate the impact of the DC-8 exhaust/contrails on the cirrus.

 

Flight Track

Flight Log

FLIGHT PLAN:
For the duration of the flight, 100 mi. legs will be flown along the wind (predicted to be 240 deg.) over the CART site. The upwind end of the legs will be at the CART site. The ER-2 will rendezvous with the DC-8 at the downwind waypoint, and the first two legs will be flown with the two planes stacked. Subsequently, the ER-2 will be flying uncoordinated 130 mile legs over the DC-8 flight track.
The first two DC-8 flight legs will be at cloud-base (predicted to be 20 K'). Then we will step up in altitude to cloud top (nominally in 2 K' increments assuming a cloud-top at 30 K'). The top leg should be just above cloud top to see if persistent contrails form there. Next, we will spiral down over the CART site and repeat the pattern. During the second pattern, we may fly each leg twice to see whether we are laying a persistent contrail in the cloud or otherwise altering the cirrus.
At the end of this pattern, if time permits, we will fly two 15 minute legs in the stratosphere.
At some point, we will do a box pattern for MMS calibration.

TAKEOFF/LANDING
The DC-8 left Salina at 15.23 UTC (10.23 am local time) and returned to Salina around 21.30 UTC

FLIGHT REPORT: For the first stairstep pattern, legs were flown at 20, 24, 26, 29, and 32 K'. On the leg at 32 K', we suspected that we were laying a persistent contrail, so we flew back on the same leg. The contrail was persistent and clearly visible from the cockpit, but we missed it in the turn.
For the second leg, time ran short, so we did legs at 22, 27, and 33 K'. The leg at 33 K' was repeated to attempt to find contrail. No contrail was visible from the cockpit, but we were near the tops of the clouds, so it was difficult to detect.
At the end of the last 33 K' leg, we circled a few times, sampling our contrail a few times. Then we spiraled down to 23 K' and headed home.
METEOROLOGY-REPORT
FORECAST: Meteorology expected: Cirrus are expected throughout the flight over the CART site with tops ranging from 30-35 K'. The upper troposphere should be cold enough to form contrails.
OBSERVATIONS: Cirrus over the CART site thickened throughout the day over the CART site. Early in the flight, cirrus were only present at the west end of our leg. Later in the flight cirrus were present on nearly the entire leg from about 24 - 33 K'.

INSTRUMENTS: Forecast: All instruments are functioning except: CIMS (Ballenthin, Viggiano, & Miller) will not be operated.

  • BALLENTHIN: Not on plane
  • BAUMGARDNER: Worked well
  • BRUNE: Heaters improved the laser stability. HO2 still not working
  • CHAN: No problems
  • COGGIOLA: Instrument worked, but sensitivity was low. Need parts
  • COOPER: O.K. Still had low T problems
  • DADS: O.K. Some hygrometer problems
  • FERRY: Worked well
  • GARY: Worked fine
  • GERBER: Worked well
  • HAGEN: Worked well
  • HALLET: Worked O.K.
  • HEYMSFIELD: No problems
  • HUDSON: Worked well
  • LAWSON: Worked well most of flight. Had problems later
  • RODGERS: Worked well. IN down to -33 C
  • SACHSE: Worked well
  • TALBOT: OK
  • TWOHY: Worked fine
  • UTHE: O.K. Still having computer gliches
  • VALERO: Everything worked
  • WEINHEIMER: Worked fine

 

Mission Highlights

 

  • Cirrus observed over CART site should provide good case study for cirrus radiative properties and remote sensing validation.
  • Reports from ground observers indicate that we were making persistent contrails at temperatures as high as -38 C in patchy cirrus.

 

Mission Objective

T-39 Flight 05

  • To check the newly installed chemical ionization mass spect system.

 

Flight Log

TAKEOFF/LANDING:
The T-39 departed SLN at 1800UTC and returned at 2000UTC

FLIGHT REPORT:
The T-39 flew to 41kft to observe the performance characterstics of the CIMS instruments.

METEOROLOGY-REPORT:

INSTRUMENT STATUS:

  • CIMS - mass spec - WORKED
  • MS - Met/Nav system - WORKED
  • AMS - Air Motion Sensor - WORKED
  • NDIR - CO2 - WORKED
  • 3760 - fine CN - WORKED
  • 3025 - ultra fine CN - WORKED
  • FSSP - 0.3-20um aerosols - Software probelem
  • PCASP - 0.1-3um aerosols - WORKED

 

Highlights

 

  • The T-39 was able to perform needed instrument checks.

96/04/21 CART site activity

 

Meteorology at the Central Facility

Weather Conditions from Site Operators Log
Variable mostly thin cirrostratus and fibratus, in several layers between 6.6 to 11.0 km, nice 22 degree halo at times

 

Visiting Instruments at Central Facilities

 

 

 

CART Instrument Operations at Central Facilities

Key: O = operational, X = down or degraded

  • RASS, 50 MHz, (hourly): X
  • RASS, 915 MHz, (hourly): O
  • BSRN: O
  • SIROS: O
  • SMOS, (24 hrs): O
  • SWATS (24 hrs): O
  • EBBR, (24 hrs): O
  • WSI, (every 10 min.) O
  • MWR, (24 hrs): O
  • IRT: X
  • MPL, (24 hrs): O
  • BLC, (24 hrs): O
  • AERI, (24 hrs): O
  • SORTI, (daytime, sunny): O
  • Raman Lidar (daytime): O
  • 60M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M IRT: X
  • 25M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • 25M Upwelling IR: O
  • 25M Upwelling Solar: O
  • 10M IRT: O
  • 10M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • Aerosol System: O
  • Radiosondes, (Every 3 hrs, from 1:30 UTC): O

 

CART Instrument Operations at Boundary Facilities

There are four staffed Boundary Facilities, each having Balloon Borne Sounding Systems (BBSS) and MicroWave Radiometers (MWR). During the IOP period, sondes are launched every three hours round the clock, starting at 5:30 GMT (12:30 CST). The sites are listed below. Times listed following a site indicate questionable data or failed sonde launches. Weather conditions are recorded in the Boundary Facilities Site Operator's Log.

  • Hillsboro, KS (BF-1): Okay
  • Vici, OK (BF-4): Okay
  • Morris, OK (BF-5): Okay
  • Purcell, OK (BF-6): Okay

 

CART Instrumentation at Extended Facilities

There are numerous unstaffed Extended Facilities. The specific instrumentation at the extended facilities varies from site to site, but generally includes a flux station (either an Energy Balance Bowen Ration (EBBR) system or an Eddy Correlation (ECOR) system), a Solar and InfraRed Observing System (SIROS), and a Standard Meteorology Observing Station (SMOS). For the locations of the Extended Facilities, and their suite of instrumentation, see the table and map of the Extended CART site. The comments below indicate specific data streams with identified problems.

  • Problem at Extended Facility:
  • E1: ECOR
  • E2: SIROS
  • E3: SIROS
  • E10: SIROS
  • E11: SIROS
  • E16: ECOR
  •  

 

Key Comments/Observations related to flights

Several contrails from DC-8 and Egrett briefly sampled. Excellent day. High cirrus and abundant persistent contrails, especially embedded in established cirrus.

UAV flight with Egrett and Otter was well coordinated with this flight day.

CART-site observations (04/20):

warm day, calm surface winds
cirrus cloud during the entire day, no mid-level and low-level clouds
cirrus was patchy, especially in the morning, cirrus (cells) thickened during day and gave a less broken cloud appearance
lots of cloud structure visually - supported by lidar observations: many cloud layers, initially between 25000ft and 30000ft; later spreading to altitudes between 19000ft and 33000ft.
cirrus cloud-field moved in SW to NE direction over the site
22deg halos was observed almost during the entire day

observed DC-8 overpassed (generally approaching from the NE, turning just SW of the CART-site and disappearing towards the NE; times in UTC)
16.10 DC-8 turning underneath a halo and under the contrail of the ascending Egrett
16.58 DC-8 overhead and turning back
17.13 DC-8 contrail created during the turn passes over the CART-site lidar thickness about 300m
17.30 continued broken cirrus cloud field: temporary thickening of cirrus, loss of halo, vertical structure seen to the N
17.45 DC-8 passed to the S (no contrail at 27000ft)
17.50 DC-8 passed directly over CART-site, weak contrail only more persistent in cloudy areas
18.05 strong cell, almost loosing the sun-disk
18.18 direct sun-light yet clouds overhead: cloud-street type cirrus structure with cloud bands oriented in wind-direction (necessity for cross-wind profiling)
18.28 DC-8 passing over the site laying a long contrail and looping over the CART-site (first loop completed at 18.33, though drifting away to the north of the CART-sitei; second loop completed at 18.38 NE of CART site; visual contact lost after the 2.5 loops when DC-8 probably stopped making contrails)
xx.xx missed DC-8 overpass and loop
19.40 DC-8 passing overhead (laying a contrail that is persistent in the cloud)
19.45 DC-8 cossing its own contrail on the downwind (out) leg at 33000ft
20.21 DC-8 overhead and laying persistent contrails which created dark shadows on the lower cirrus cloud deck
20.22 DC-8 started loops north of the CART site (loop1: 20.27, loop2: 20.37, completed (making contrails), later visually lost - as Lagrangian Loops moved the aircraft away from the CART-site

1996-04-18

The DC-8 sampled the T-39 exhaust plume without contrails. The DC-8 also detected a weak tropopause fold. The T-39 provided emissions for the DC-8 to sample and also sampled the DC-8 emissions. The T-39 was able to fly at a fixed position (20-50 meters behind the DC-8) and sample the exhaust of the individual inboard engines.

Highlights

Flight Reports

Mission Summary

DC-8 SUCCESS flight #205 [960205] (scientist: Eric Jensen)

SUMMARY: The basic flight went very well. All of the instruments are functioning, with some small problems left to be worked out. We sampled the T-39 exhaust plume under conditions with no contrails, which was one of our major objectives. We also sampled the tops of some mid-level cirrus and the tops of generating cells near the limit for water drop homogeneous freezing.

Mission Objective

The climbout portion of the flight (Part 1) will allow the T-39 to sample the DC-8 exhaust. The transient contrail sampling should provide data on exhaust microphysical properties and chemical composition and young contrail microphysical properties. This flight should also clarify the dependence of transient contrail lifetime on environmental conditions. Finally, we will investigate the impact of contrail processing on plume chemistry and microphysical composition.

Flight Track

 

Flight Log

FLIGHT PLAN:
Part 1: Formation flying to target
After rendezvous at 20kft, T-39 follows DC-8 to the cart site. The aircraft will fly level stairstep legs at 20, 25, and 35kft, with the T-39 sampling the DC-8 exhaust.
Part 2: Sampling Transient Contrails and Exhaust
Once on station, the aircraft will ascend to 31kft and the DC-8 will drop behind the T-39. The DC-8 will follow the T-39 in a racetrack pattern with 15 min. legs (100 mi.) aligned with the wind at 31kft. 2 circuits will be flown at each of 2 altitudes: 31 and 35kft. The second circuit at each altitude will be offset 12 miles to avoid sampling of old plume from the first circuit. The 4 legs will be flown with different separation between the aircraft:
Leg 1: As close as possible
Leg 2: 2 mi.
Leg 3: 4 mi.
Leg 4: 6 mi.
The separation on leg 4 should be large enough such that the contrail has dissipated before the DC-8 reaches it. The DC-8 will need to pitch and roll slightly to make sure entire contrail/plume is sampled by all instruments.
The ER-2 will fly a similar racetrack pattern above the DC-8/T-39 track with two important difference: First, the ER-2 heading will be reverse relative to the DC-8/T-39; second, the ER-2 racetrack will be inclined about 10 deg. to the DC-8/T-39 track. The 3 aircraft should coordinate to reach intersection waypoints such that the ER-2 crosses between the two lower aircraft, thus sampling the TR-9 contrail before the DC-8 flies through it. This will require precise timing of waypoint crossings (within 1 min.). The reverse-heading flight path of the ER-2 gives the MAS a better chance of hitting contrail. The coordinated overpasses will occur at the CART site on legs 2 and 4 of each circuit.

TAKEOFF/LANDING
The DC-8 left Salina at 17.01 UTC (12.01 am local time) and returned to Salina around 21.00 UTC

FLIGHT REPORT:
Flew first flight leg at 20kft with T-39 on our tail. Did legs at 20. 25, and 31kft. Haze layer apparent at about 31kft. Sampled T-39 exhaust in racetrack pattern. pattern. First couple of legs were at 4-6 mi. and not very well coordinated (lots of manuevers). Got very close in subsequent legs. NO and DACOM indicated exhaust crossings periodically. NO got much larger plume concentrations than seen in DC-8 circle maneuvers. We couldn't align with the wind due to an instrument problem on the T-39. We were about 10-15 deg. off the wind.
After T-39 headed home, we flew for about 15 min. at 37kft to get a stratospheric sample. Then we descended to 29kft and sampled cirrus. Lidar had had a computer failure just before we entered the cirrus. Ice crystals were relatively large (< 200 microns). At around -40C Water clouds were apparent. After these legs, we headed home.

METEOROLOGY-REPORT
FORECAST: Warm tropopause, small chance of cirrus over CART site. Wind direction forcast to be 260 deg.
OBSERVATIONS: Lots of haze below about 30kft. Cirrus off to west with tops at about 25kft (consistent with GOES water vapor images, and west coast sounding indicating moisture at 400 mb). Low tropopause, warm upper trop., no conning during entire flight.

INSTRUMENTS: Forecast: All instruments are functioning. Lawson probe not on board.

  • BALLENTHIN: Operational, but still having problems with too much hydration
  • BAUMGARDNER: No problems
  • BRUNE: Sensitivity improved, still some problems
  • CHAN: Worked OK, may have heater problem
  • COGGIOLA: No problems
  • COOPER: Worked OK, but still couldn't operate below -20 C
  • DADS: Worked OK, hygrometers were giving invalid numbers
  • FERRY: Instrument worked well, but need to be warned about turns
  • GARY: No problems
  • GERBER: Operated well
  • HAGEN: Performed OK, one CN counter is down
  • HALLET: No problems
  • HEYMSFIELD: Worked well
  • HUDSON: No problems
  • LAWSON: Not on flight
  • RODGERS: No problems
  • SACHSE: No problems
  • TALBOT: No problems
  • TWOHY: No problems
  • UTHE: OK. only on minor computer glich during rapid altitude change.
  • VALERO: Only problem was one channel of TDDR failed late in flight
  • WEINHEIMER: No problems

 

Mission Highlights

 

  • T-39 exhaust aerosols were almost entirely nonvolatile. CCN in T-39 exhaust were enhanced by a factor of 2 or 3 over background values.
  • T-39 exhaust was easily detected by the chemistry package (high concentrations of NO and CO2 levels reached 360ppm)
  • Background aerosols on this flight were 90% volatile (an unusually large fraction).
  • A weak tropopause fold was detected near the jet in the southern region of the flight (180ppb ozone at 35000ft).
  • Even at the tops of the cirrus at 29000ft the ice crystals were very large (< 100 microns on the cloudscope and upward of 2mm on the replicator)

 

Mission Objective

T-39 Flight 04

  • To conduct near field sampling of the DC-8 exhaust plume.
  • To provide emissions for the DC-8 to sample.

 

Flight Log

TAKEOFF/LANDING:
The T-39 separted SLN at 1705UTC and returned at 1953UTC

FLIGHT REPORT:
The T-39 accomplished a rendezvous with the DC-8 at 5kft approximately 3min. after takeoff. The aircraft then ascended together to 30kft, with the T-39 sampling the emissions of the DC-8 20 to 100 meters downstream. After the aircraft reached the CART site, the T-39 took the lead position to allow the DC-8 to obtain in situ measurements of its emissions.

METEOROLOGY-REPORT:

INSTRUMENT STATUS:

  • CIMS - Not yet operational
  • MS - Met/Nav system - WORKED
  • AMS - Air Motion Sensor - WORKED
  • NDIR - CO2 - WORKED
  • 3760 - fine CN - WORKED
  • 3025 - ultra fine CN - WORKED
  • FSSP - 0.3-20um aerosols - WORKED
  • PCASP - 0.1-3um aerosols - WORKED

 

Highlights

 

  • The T-39 was able to fly at a fixed position only 20-50 meters behind the DC-8 and sample the exhaust of the individual inboard engines.
  • Large concentrations of volatile ultrafine particles were observed in plumes < 0.5 second old.

96/04/18 CART site activity

 

Meteorology at the Central Facility

Weather Conditions from Site Operators Log

 

Visiting Instruments at Central Facilities

 

 

 

CART Instrument Operations at Central Facilities

Key: O = operational, X = down or degraded

  • RASS, 50 MHz, (hourly): X
  • RASS, 915 MHz, (hourly): O
  • BSRN: O
  • SIROS: O
  • SMOS, (24 hrs): O
  • SWATS (24 hrs): O
  • EBBR, (24 hrs): O
  • WSI, (every 10 min.) X
  • MWR, (24 hrs): O
  • IRT: X
  • MPL, (24 hrs): X
  • BLC, (24 hrs): O
  • AERI, (24 hrs): O
  • SORTI, (daytime, sunny): O
  • Raman Lidar (daytime): X
  • 60M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M IRT: X
  • 25M MultiFilter Radiometer: X
  • 25M Upwelling IR: X
  • 25M Upwelling Solar: X
  • 10M IRT: O
  • 10M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • Aerosol System: X
  • Radiosondes, (Every 3 hrs, from 1:30 UTC): O

 

CART Instrument Operations at Boundary Facilities

There are four staffed Boundary Facilities, each having Balloon Borne Sounding Systems (BBSS) and MicroWave Radiometers (MWR). During the IOP period, sondes are launched every three hours round the clock, starting at 5:30 GMT (12:30 CST). The sites are listed below. Times listed following a site indicate questionable data or failed sonde launches. Weather conditions are recorded in the Boundary Facilities Site Operator's Log.

  • Hillsboro, KS (BF-1): Okay
  • Vici, OK (BF-4): Okay
  • Morris, OK (BF-5): Okay
  • Purcell, OK (BF-6): Okay

 

CART Instrumentation at Extended Facilities

There are numerous unstaffed Extended Facilities. The specific instrumentation at the extended facilities varies from site to site, but generally includes a flux station (either an Energy Balance Bowen Ration (EBBR) system or an Eddy Correlation (ECOR) system), a Solar and InfraRed Observing System (SIROS), and a Standard Meteorology Observing Station (SMOS). For the locations of the Extended Facilities, and their suite of instrumentation, see the table and map of the Extended CART site. The comments below indicate specific data streams with identified problems.

  • Problem at Extended Facility:
  • E1: SMOS, SIROS, ECOR
  • E3: SMOS, SIROS
  • E4: EBBR, SIROS
  • E7: SIROS
  • E10: SIROS
  • E16: ECOR

 

Key Comments/Observations related to flights

No persistent contrails. While not optimal for SUCCESS, these conditions were optimal for ARM UAV satellite calibration missions and for Bi- Directional Reflectance Function (BDRF) measurements.

 

1996-04-17

96/04/17 CART site activity

 

Meteorology at the Central Facility

Weather Conditions from Site Operators Log

 

Visiting Instruments at Central Facilities

 

 

CART Instrument Operations at Central Facilities

Key: O = operational, X = down or degraded

  • RASS, 50 MHz, (hourly): X
  • RASS, 915 MHz, (hourly): O
  • BSRN: X
  • SIROS: X
  • SMOS, (24 hrs): O
  • SWATS (24 hrs): O
  • EBBR, (24 hrs): O
  • WSI, (every 10 min.) X
  • MWR, (24 hrs): O
  • IRT: X
  • MPL, (24 hrs): X
  • BLC, (24 hrs): O
  • AERI, (24 hrs): O
  • SORTI, (daytime, sunny): O
  • Raman Lidar (daytime): X
  • 60M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M IRT: X
  • 25M MultiFilter Radiometer: X
  • 25M Upwelling IR: X
  • 25M Upwelling Solar: X
  • 10M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • 10M IRT: O
  • Aerosol System: X
  • Radiosondes, (Every 3 hrs, from 1:30 UTC): O

 

CART Instrument Operations at Boundary Facilities

There are four staffed Boundary Facilities, each having Balloon Borne Sounding Systems (BBSS) and MicroWave Radiometers (MWR). During the IOP period, sondes are launched every three hours round the clock, starting at 5:30 GMT (12:30 CST). The sites are listed below. Times listed following a site indicate questionable data or failed sonde launches. Weather conditions are recorded in the Boundary Facilities Site Operator's Log.

  • Hillsboro, KS (BF-1): Okay
  • Vici, OK (BF-4): Okay
  • Morris, OK (BF-5): Okay
  • Purcell, OK (BF-6): Okay

 

CART Instrumentation at Extended Facilities

There are numerous unstaffed Extended Facilities. The specific instrumentation at the extended facilities varies from site to site, but generally includes a flux station (either an Energy Balance Bowen Ration (EBBR) system or an Eddy Correlation (ECOR) system), a Solar and InfraRed Observing System (SIROS), and a Standard Meteorology Observing Station (SMOS). For the locations of the Extended Facilities, and their suite of instrumentation, see the table and map of the Extended CART site. The comments below indicate specific data streams with identified problems.

  • Problem at Extended Facility:
  • E1: ECOR
  • E2: SIROS
  • E3: SIROS
  • E4: SIROS
  • E8: SMOS, EBBR, SIROS
  • E10: SIROS
  • E16: ECOR

 

Key Comments/Observations related to flights

 

1996-04-16

The T-39, DC-8 and ER-2 flew a coordinated mission over the CART site, under patchy cirrus clouds. The T-39 created contrails (by flying circles) upwind of the CART site. At the same altitude, but downwind of the CART site, the DC-8 flew perpendicular to the wind-direction to sample the remnants of the T-39 contrails, which were not too persistent to be easily identified, and to profile the patchy cirrus cloud-field. The ER-2, while flying an wind pattern, observed the other aircraft from above them. After the T39 exhausted its fuel and returned to Salina, the DC-8 continued to fly under, and with the same pattern as the ER-2. At 2006 UTC measurements were coordinated with the NOAA-14 satellite overpass.

Highlights


Flight Reports

ER-2 Flight: 96104

Date: April 16, 1996

Mission: Persistent contrails/cirrus over ARM CART Site.

Mission Objectives

Observe T-39 and DC-8 generated persistent contrails of various age. Contrail advection over CART site will be overflown by ER-2 for combined ground-based uplooking and ER-2 based downlooking characterization of contrails/cirrus. Characterize ambient radiometric conditions of atmosphere by flying upwind of T-39/DC-8 contrail generation region.

Flight Track

Flight Summary

ER-2 launch at 1700 UTC; ER-2 recovery at 2335 UTC. ER-2 flew 12 legs of an east-west oriented line (headings 90 and 270 degrees true north; 130 nm length) with ARM CART site (36 36.3'N 97 29.1'W) positioned 50 nm from western end of nadir flight line. Final 2 legs extended to 180nm for additional downwind coverage of old contrails. Total of 12 overpasses of ARM CART site. T-39 flying 10 nm diameter circles positioned 10, 20, and 30 nm upwind (west) of ARM CART site. DC-8 flying north-south oriented legs centered at 0, 10, 20, and 30 nm downwind of ARM CART site and then flying racetrack (oriented about 15 degrees off ER-2 heading). No time-dependent positioning coordination between ER-2 and DC-8 or T-39.

Cirrus in westerly flow aloft of varying thickness over ARM CART site and all along ER-2 flight line. T-39 contrails were not persistent. DC-8 contrails more persistent than T-39. ER-2 pilot had 2 visual observations of DC-8 contrail (1802 and 2009:30 UTC).

ARM CART site Central Facility coordinates verified for DC-8 and ER-2 flight plans.

Highlights

Lots of cirrus of varying thickness observed by ER-2. DC-8 with contrail apparent in MAS data at 1802 and 2009 UTC. ARM CART site uplooking lidar operatining during mission. Twelve overpasses of ARM CART site (approximately 1758, 1828, 1849, 1918, 1939, 2009, 2030, 2100, 2121, 2150, 2211, and 2154 UTC).

Instrument Status

  • Modis Airborne Simulator (MAS): Operated. Good data collected.
  • Cloud Aerosol Lidar System (CALS): Operated. Good data collected
  • High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS): Operated. Good data collected.
  • Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer(MIR): Operated. Good data collected.
  • Tilt Scan CCD Camera (TSCC): Operated in non-data collection mode.
  • Radiation Measuring System (RAMS): Operated. Good data collected.
  • RC-10 Camera: Operated on all but first flight leg (black and white visible film- 6 inch lens).

Additional Pilot Notes:. DC-8 contrail short-lived at 1802 UTC encounter. No visual of T-39 aircraft or contrails.

 

Mission Summary

DC-8 SUCCESS flight #204 [960204] (scientist: Eric Jensen)

SUMMARY: This flight turned out to primarily be a cirrus profiling mission. Reports from the ER-2 and the ground indicated that the T-39 did not generate persistent contrails. There were occasional indications of contrail crossings. It was a very successful cirrus sampling flight. Patchy cirrostratus were present most of the time during our crosswind pattern south of the CART site.

Mission Objective

DC-8 FLIGHT 204

  • get a complete picture of persistent contrail properties, evolution, and environmental conditions. Persistent contrails generated by the T-39 will be sampled in situ by the DC-8, and remotely from the ER-2 and from the ground as they advect over the CART site.
  • use the DC-8 to sample its own contrail and generate a contrail aligned with the wind upwind of the CART site.
  • profile the cirrus layer

Flight Track

 

Flight Log

OPERATIONS
FLIGHT PLAN:
Planned takeoff: 17.00 UTC (12.00 local time) for a six hour flight.
Part 1: The T-39 will first fly a set of 4 10-mile-diameter circles centered 10 mi. upwind of the CART site. Next, the T-39 will fly 4 10-mile-diameter circles centered 20 mi. upwind of the CART site. Finally, 4 more circles 30 mi. upwind of the CART site.
Assuming a 60 knot wind speed, it will take about 30 min. for the contrails to advect 30 mi. downwind of the CART site where the DC-8 will begin sampling them. During this time, the DC-8 should profile any cirrus in the area while staying at least 30 mi. downwind of the CART site. Once the T-39 contrails have advected 30 mi. downwind of the CART site, the DC-8 will fly 4 10-min. flight legs normal to the wind, crossing the T-39 contrails. Each flight leg will be 10 mi. closer to the CART site such that the 4th leg will go over the CART site. After the 4th leg, the DC-8 will fly downwind to 30 mi. downwind of CART site and again fly 10 min. legs normal to the wind. The first 3 legs should all be at 30 mi. downwind of CART site so that old DC-8 contrails can advect out of the way. The 4th, 5th, and 6th legs will then be at 20, 10, and 0 mi. downwind, respectively.
The ER-2 will fly tracks over the CART site, aligned with the wind for the duration of the mission. The track should extend 20 mi. upwind of T-39 circle and 60 mi. downwind of CART site (maximum 110 mi. flight track).
Part 2: After the T-39 heads home, the DC-8 will fly straight legs inclined 10-20 deg. to the wind. The legs will be about 20 min. long. The objective will be to fly back up the contrail from the previous leg. The upwind leg will cross several miles upwind of the CART site such that the contrail advects over the CART site before the DC-8 flies back up its contrail.About 4 legs will be flown. The ER-2 will continue flying upwind and downwind over the CART site extending just upwind and downwind of the DC-8 contrails.
After the last contrail-sampling leg, the DC-8 will fly directly upwind over the CART site and continue upwind 60 miles. The ER-2 will fly a few hundred mi. downwind from the CART site to image old contrails.

TAKEOFF/LANDING
The DC-8 left Salina at 17.05 UTC (12.05 am local time) and returned to Salina at 22.50 UTC

FLIGHT REPORT
The CART site relayed cirrus altitudes at 27000, 33000 and 35000ft.
The Sabre-liner left Salina at 17.00 UTC to make circle contrails about 10 miles upwind of the CART-site at 35000ft.
The DC-8 left Salina at 17.05 UTC. The DC-8 headed downwind of the CART-site for cross-wind cirrus profiling (up and dn 10 minute flight-legs) at first at 27000ft (2 legs), then at 31000ft (2 legs) and finally at 35000ft (4 legs) - at that altitude also to sample aged T-39 contrails.
At 27000ft 'tons of particles' were detected in patchy cirrus by the Lawson probe and by the 2DC-probe. On the second leg there was a short power failure. (Converter 1 died at 17.30 UTC and it took a few minutes to bring back up.)
At 31000ft cirrus streaks were seen above and below and in the vicinity, though it also appeared cloud-free locally. Persistent contrails were seen above.
At 35000ft the DC-8 layed a contrail (started to do so at 32000ft - 18.00 UTC, which was detected by the ER-2 pilot from above). Commercial aircraft crossed above and layed contrails, that lasted about 20 km, but they were not persistent. The DC-8 was skimming along the top of patchy cirrus, with nice fallstreaks to lower elevations.
Cirrus was observed at all three altitudes (no low and mid level clouds), fallstreaks were mainly below 30000ft. Cirrus was more frequent and optically thicker towards the northern sections of the north-south flight legs. Cirrus was patchy and often it appeared that the aircraft was flying in cloud-free air with cirrus all around. With increasing altitude there were less particle counts on the 2DC probe, though many small crystals (10um size and smaller) were detected by the replicator (Hallet) and by the VIPS (Heymsfield).
The CART site indicated that the DC-8 was generating a persistent contrail at about 18:25 UTC.
The temperature was about -62C. MTP reported that the tropopause was at about 39000ft most of the flight. For most of the pattern, the lidar was restricted to scanning below 0 degree.
On the fourth leg at 35000ft the DC-8 passed over the CART site. We noticed (possible T-39) contrail left-overs below us (18.50 UTC).
The ER-2 reports seeing T-39 and DC-8 contrails, however, these contrails are non-persistent. It was decided to climb to 37000ft. The T-39 (on request) climbed to 37000 ft, while the DC-8 made four more flight legs at 35000ft to catch remnants of T-39 contrails.
On these legs the DC-8 - at least once - crossed our own contrail: VIPS showed many sub-10um crystals and relative humidity is above 100% (to ice).
At 37000ft the DC-8 was still creating contrails, though not persistent. We passed several contrail remnants (T-39), though, there were difficult to identify visually, due to cirrus break-off and smoke from fires at the surface.
The T-39 returned, and as the DC-8 were unable to create persistent contrails it was decided to profile the cirrus/contrail cloud deck.
The DC-8 descended to 29000ft and flew east-west flight legs at over the CART site.
At 29000ft DC-8 did not produce any contrails. The CART site was obscured by a thicker cirrus patch.
At 32000ft, DC-8 started to produce a slight contrail, but lost that ability towards the end of the flight-leg (winds 70kn/ 266deg).
At 35000ft (above 33000ft) the DC-8 made contrails again. The DC-8 passed several aged contrails (slightly below) indicated also by chemistry measurements. The relative humidity (DADS) is shown to be consistently above 115%. The DC-8 altitude at 37000ft was cancelled and instead the DC-8 returned into its own contrail: great data! (NO, NOy, CN, VIPS). We measured in the DC-8 contrail for several miles. Early on, the contrail was embedded in the cirrus top, then in clear air. The aircraft was maneuvered such that both wingtips could sample the contrail.
Finally, the DC-8 climbed into the stratosphere (tropopause at 39000ft).
At 41000ft (-64C, 140% (?)) the DC-8 laid long (though not persistent) contrails. Contrails were clearly visible during a slow wide turn.
The DC-8 then descended (at 22.00) in an Eulerian spiral (not exceeding 1000ft descent per minute) over the CART site in optically thin cirrus, as the ground was visible during the spiral. Some wiggling MMS maneuvers were flown on the return to Salina. Landing (in strong southerly winds) occurred at 22.50 UTC.

METEOROLOGY REPORT
Forecast: Thin cirrus (possibly thick). High humidities in upper troposphere. Tropopause height of about 12 km.
Observations: As expected, tropopause was high and cold near 12 km and about -65 C. No mid-level or low-level clouds, though cirrus. Cirrus was freqently patchy and thickend up as the day progressed. Many contrails were oberserved though not always very persistent (passing planes). The DC-8 preduced contrail above 32000ft well into the stratosphere.

INSTRUMENT STATUS
The Gerber probe was not on the plane. The three stage hygrometer pump was broken and was replaced by a two stage pump. The Lawson probe was back on.

  • BALLENTHIN: worked well
  • BAUMGARDNER: worked well
  • BRUNE: ATHOS worked for about 2 hours before laser dye died
  • CHAN: worked well
  • COGGIOLA: worked well
  • COOPER: problems with CN counter, should be fixed by tomorrow
  • DADS: worked well except for 3 minutes down due to converter 1 power outage
  • FERRY: 2-D worked. MASP had problems. One impactor bent.
  • GARY: worked well. No problems
  • GERBER: not on plane. May be ready tomorrow
  • HAGEN: worked well.
  • HALLET: worked OK. Had problems at high altitudes. Replicator worked well
  • HEYMSFIELD: worked well
  • HUDSON: worked OK
  • LAWSON: probe is working but needs some tweaking
  • RODGERS: problems with IN instrument early in flight, corrected later.
  • SACHSE: everything worked well. Need to change reference CO2 instrument
  • TALBOT: no problems
  • TWOHY: got good data. Need to fix minor leak sometime.
  • UTHE: had several power failures. Scanning operation was limited by ATC
  • VALERO: OK. except for one dn-TDDR channel.
  • WEINHEIMER: worked well.

 

Mission Highlights

 

  • DC-8 measuring its own persistent contrail on a return leg at 35000 ft altitude near the CART site
  • detection of many small ice-crystals in upper tropospheric cirrus
  • occasional intersection with aged contrails
  • laying persistent contrails in the lower stratosphere (41000ft, -64C)

 

Mission Objective

T-39 Flight 03

  • Produce contrails for in situ sampling by the DC-8

 

Flight Log

TAKEOFF/LANDING:
The T-39 separted SLN at 16:59UTC and returned at 20:06UTC

FLIGHT REPORT:
The T-39 flew to a position 10mi. west of the CART site and executed a series of 10mi. diameter circles at 35, 37, and 39kft.

METEOROLOGY-REPORT:
Fairly dense cirrus at 29-30kft. Patchy cirrus at 32-36kft. Contrails were persistent only in regions of cirrus.

INSTRUMENT STATUS:

  • CIMS - Not yet operational
  • MS - Met/Nav system - WORKED
  • AMS - Air Motion Sensor - WORKED
  • NDIR - CO2 - WORKED
  • 3760 - fine CN - WORKED
  • 3025 - ultra fine CN - WORKED
  • FSSP - 0.3-20um aerosols - WORKED
  • PCASP - 0.1-3um aerosols - WORKED

 

Highlights

 

  • Accomplished low altitude rendezvous with the DC-8 and satisfactory formation flight.
  • Made several dozen crossings of the DC-8 plume at separations of 0.8 to 8 miles.
  • Observed large concentrations of volatile ultra fine particles at all distances behind the DC-8.

96/04/16 CART site activity

 

Meteorology at the Central Facility

Weather Conditions from Site Operators Log
Near overcast of variable thin (bluish-colored) fibratus, frequent contrail segments, cirrus tops up to 11.5 km MSL, bases down to 7.0 km. Mild winds of 8-15 mph from the west and northwest.

 

Visiting Instruments at Central Facilities

 

 

 

CART Instrument Operations at Central Facilities

Key: O = operational, X = down or degraded

  • RASS, 50 MHz, (hourly): X
  • RASS, 915 MHz, (hourly): O
  • BSRN: O
  • SIROS: O
  • SMOS, (24 hrs): O
  • SWATS (24 hrs): O
  • EBBR, (24 hrs): O
  • WSI, (every 10 min.) O
  • MWR, (24 hrs): O
  • IRT:X
  • MPL, (24 hrs): X
  • BLC, (24 hrs): O
  • AERI, (24 hrs): O
  • SORTI, (daytime, sunny): O
  • Raman Lidar (daytime): X
  • 60M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M IRT: X
  • 25M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • 25M Upwelling IR: O
  • 25M Upwelling Solar: O
  • 10M IRT: O
  • 10M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • Aerosol System: O
  • Radiosondes, (Every 3 hrs, from 1:30 UTC): O

 

CART Instrument Operations at Boundary Facilities

There are four staffed Boundary Facilities, each having Balloon Borne Sounding Systems (BBSS) and MicroWave Radiometers (MWR). During the IOP period, sondes are launched every three hours round the clock, starting at 5:30 GMT (12:30 CST). The sites are listed below. Times listed following a site indicate questionable data or failed sonde launches. Weather conditions are recorded in the Boundary Facilities Site Operator's Log.

  • Hillsboro, KS (BF-1): Okay
  • Vici, OK (BF-4): Okay
  • Morris, OK (BF-5): Okay
  • Purcell, OK (BF-6): Okay

 

CART Instrumentation at Extended Facilities

There are numerous unstaffed Extended Facilities. The specific instrumentation at the extended facilities varies from site to site, but generally includes a flux station (either an Energy Balance Bowen Ration (EBBR) system or an Eddy Correlation (ECOR) system), a Solar and InfraRed Observing System (SIROS), and a Standard Meteorology Observing Station (SMOS). For the locations of the Extended Facilities, and their suite of instrumentation, see the table and map of the Extended CART site. The comments below indicate specific data streams with identified problems.

  • Problem at Extended Facility:
  • E1, ECOR
  • E2, SIROS
  • E4, SIROS
  • E6, SMOS, SIROS
  • E10, SIROS
  • E11, SMOS, SIROS, ECOR
  • E16, ECOR
  •  

 

Key Comments/Observations related to flights

Upwind T-39 contrail loops tended to generate only incomplete contrail segments at the height of the existing cirrus, typically only in association with the patchy natural cirrus present. Moreover, although several were sampled from the ground, most of the contrail bits were poorly targeted by the T-39 and passed just to the S of the CART site.

 

1996-04-15

The T-39, DC-8 and ER-2 flew a coordinated mission over the CART site, with the DC-8 and T-39 sampling each others exhaust plume while the ER-2 flew a racetrack pattern above them. The T-39 measured the DC-8 plume at distances from 0.8km-8.0km. The DC-8 reported that the tropopause was too warm for contrail formation, however, the T-39 observed short lived contrails (1km-2km) from commercial aircraft at 32kft west of the CART site. Clear skies/low level cumulus was reported by all three aircraft.

Highlights

ER-2 lidar data from 04/15


Flight Reports

ER-2 Flight: 96103

Date: April 15, 1996

Mission: Non-persistent contrails/Radiation measurement mission over ARM CART Site. Aircraft (ER-2, DC-8, T-39) coordination exercise.

Mission Objectives

Observe T-39 non-persistent contrails, if present. Exercise T-39, DC-8, and ER-2 coordinated flight over ARM CART site checkpoint. Overfly ground-based instrumentation at the ARM CART site for comparison of ER-2 downlooking with surface based uplooking instruments.

Flight Track

Flight Summary

ER-2 launch at 1745 UTC; ER-2 recovery at 2045 UTC. ER-2 flew 2 1/2 revolutions of racetrack pattern (headings 345 and 165 degrees true north, ~100 nm flight lines) starting on eastern leg (heading 165). ER-2 overflew ARM CART site (36 36.6'N 97 34.8'W) at center of eastern leg. Total of 3 overpasses of ARM CART site. Aircraft coordination (ER-2, DC-8, T-39) checkpoint at ARM CART site.

Skies mostly clear at ARM CART site with increasing scattered boundary layer cloud formation on 2nd and 3rd overpass. DC-8 (on racetrack oriented 330/150 degrees) was unable to complete it's racetrack pattern due to air traffic control (ATC) vectoring of DC-8. This complicated aircraft coordination exercise, however ER-2 pilot reported verbal exchange placed ER-2 and DC-8 within about 30 seconds (~ 3 nm) of each other at CART site.

ARM CART site Central Facility coordinates provided for DC-8 and ER-2 flight plans did not agree. Coordinates being verified for next flight.

Highlights

Aircraft coordination was complicated by ATC. Verbal exchange placed ER-2 and DC-8 within 30 seconds of each other on ARM CART site overpass (1854 UTC). Mostly clear sky conditions useful for ARM science objectives. Three overpasses of ARM CART site (approximately1854, 1926; and 2001 UTC)).

Instrument Status

  • Modis Airborne Simulator (MAS): Operated. Good data collected.
  • Cloud Aerosol Lidar System (CALS): Operated. Good data collected.
  • High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS): Operated. Good data collected.
  • Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer(MIR): Operated. Good data collected.
  • Tilt Scan CCD Camera (TSCC): Operated in non-data collection mode.
  • Radiation Measuring System (RAMS): Operated. Status unknown at time of report.
  • RC-10 Camera: Operated (black and white visible film- 6 inch lens).

Additional Pilot Notes:. No visual of DC-8 aircraft at coordination point. ER-2 pilot performed several loops to time arrival at CART site with DC-8 arrival.

 

Mission Summary

DC-8 SUCCESS flight #203 (scientist: Eric Jensen)

SUMMARY: The basic flight went very well. All of the instruments are functioning, with mainly small problems left to be worked out. We met all of our major objectives, testing instruments, calibrating the MMS and coordinating flight maneuvers with the T-39 and the ER-2.

Mission Objective

DC-8 TEST-FLIGHT

  • practice coordinated flight maneuvers for DC-8 and T-39
  • attempt a coordinated overpass of the ER-2 and DC-8/T-39
  • test the Valero radiaometers on the ER-2, third test-flight
  • evaluate how long after takeoff the DC-8 instruments become operational
  • repeat a few of the calibration maneuvers for the MMS system

 

Flight Track

 

Flight Log

OPERATIONS
FLIGHT PLAN:
Planned takeoff: 17.00 UTC (12.00 local time)
The DC-8 and T-39 will climb out in formation and head to the CART site. Over the CART site racetrack patterns will be flown aligned with the wind (predicted to be 330 deg.). The DC-8 and T-39 will practice following one another. If possible, the DC-8 and T-39 will coordinate with the ER-2 to pass over a particular waypoint simultaneously. The success of the coordinated overpass will be determined visually by the ER-2 pilot. At the end of the flight, we will fly maneuvers to calibrate MMS.

TAKEOFF/LANDING
The DC-8 left Salina at 17.00 UTC (12.00 am local time) and returned to Salina at 20.30 UTC

FLIGHT REPORT
Circled over KSLP then headed south to WP 2. Climbed through stratocu at about 3-5 K'. Lost power to systems on converter 1, possibly due to short in 3-stage hygrometer pump. Climbed to 31 K'. T-39 flew off right wingtip, then flew in front. No coning. Tropopause Temp about -50 C. Indications from Twohey and DeMott/Rogers that we were intersecting plume: 60 s of enhanced CN number density with numbers as high as about 15000/cc. Most of the CN were involatile based on Twohey's heated inlet measurements. T-39 about 0.75 miles ahead. T-39 exhaust was also detected in H2O and CO2 measurements. Next, the T-39 pulled in behind and stayed behind. When T-39 used radar, MTP was fouled. Short contrail was observed during a few brief periods by T-39 while following. Laid contrail over CART site at T of about -50 C, low RHI. This contrail was not visible on video or looking back. Didn't begin racetrack over CART site until about 1.5 hours into flight. Air traffic problems forced turn in first leg of racetrack. T-39 headed home after waypoint 5 was reached. Started coning visibly at -53 C, 30% RHI. Descended to 25 K' to do MMS maneuvers. Did box and yaw maneuvers at 25 K'. Did pitch maneuvers at 23 K'. Attempted to repeat pattern at 17 K'. Air traffic forced one leg of box to be a couple of minutes. Yaw maneuver at 17K', and pitch maneuver at 16K'.

METEOROLOGY-REPORT
FORECAST: No clouds, tropopause too warm for even transient contrails.
OBSERVATIONS: As expected, tropopause was low and warm: near 10 km and -50 C. Popcorn cumulous was present at about 3-5 K'.

INSTRUMENT STATUS
All instruments are functioning.

  • BALLENTHIN: No problems
  • BAUMGARDNER: No major problems. Minor datasystem problems.
  • BRUNE: ATHOS functioned well. Added NO and got good HO2 signal. Still need improved sensitivity. Need a few down days soon.
  • CHAN: No problems. Expect to need some maeuvers every flight.
  • COGGIOLA: No problems
  • COOPER: Water dripped on instrument, but no major problem.
  • DADS: Fine. Lost data in power failure.
  • FERRY: Worked fine.
  • GARY: Worked except maybe when T-39 radar was on.
  • GERBER: Temperature, airspeed - dependent offset discovered.
  • HAGEN: Worked OK.
  • HALLET: Replicator worked, no clouds.
  • HEYMSFIELD: VIPS and 2D-C, worked well.
  • HUDSON: Pump failed near end of flight. Need replacement.
  • LAWSON: Not on board
  • RODGERS: Good data
  • SACHSE: Hygrometer worked well. Alignment problem with CO instrument.
  • TALBOT: No problems
  • TWOHY: Good shape
  • UTHE: Lidar worked well. Still adjusting displays.
  • VALERO: Worked well. One chanel on TDDR still down.
  • WEINHEIMER: Everything fine

 

Mission Highlights

 

  • strong east-west O3 gradient observed near CART site
  • T-39 plume was observed with high CN (up to 10000/cc, mostly involatile) and in CO2 and H2O measurements.
  • background CN number densities were about 150 - 200/cc with about 50-80% non-volatile.

 

Mission Objective

T-39 Flight 02

  • Practice aircraft coordination with DC-8 and ER-2.
  • Establish ``comfort range'' of separation between the T-39 and DC-8 for plume/vortex penetrations.

 

Flight Log

TAKEOFF/LANDING:
The T-39 departed Salina at 17:03UT and returned at 19:28

FLIGHT REPORT:
The T-39 and DC-8 aircraft took off together and flew in formation to the experiment area. Once there, the DC-8 dropped back into the T-39 trail and sampled its exhaust emissions while the DC-8 pilots practiced coordinated maneuvers with the T-39. After completing a racetrack course, the T-39 dropped into the DC-8 trail and sampled as the DC-8 flew a series of racetracks over the CART site.

METEOROLOGY-REPORT:
Observed low level cumulus on takeoff and landing with clear skies in the mid to upper troposphere. Short contrails (1-2km) formed to the west of the CART site at 32k ft.

INSTRUMENT STATUS:

  • CIMS - Not yet installed
  • MS - Met/Nav system - worked (except for GPS)
  • AMS - Air motion system - WORKED
  • NDIR - CO2 - WORKED
  • 3760 - fine CN - WORKED
  • 3025 - ultra fine CN - WORKED
  • FSSP - 0.3-20um aerosols - WORKED
  • PCASP - 0.1-3um aerosols - WORKED

 

Highlights

 

  • Accomplished low altitude rendezvous with the DC-8 and satisfactory formation flight.
  • Made several dozen crossings of the DC-8 plume at separations of 0.8 to 8 miles.
  • Observed large concentrations of volatile ultra fine particles at all distances behind the DC-8.

1996-04-14

96/04/14 CART site activity

 

Meteorology at the Central Facility

Weather Conditions from Site Operators Log

 

Visiting Instruments at Central Facilities

 

 

 

CART Instrument Operations at Central Facilities

Key: O = operational, X = down or degraded

  • RASS, 50 MHz, (hourly): X
  • RASS, 915 MHz, (hourly): O
  • BSRN: O
  • SIROS: O
  • SMOS, (24 hrs): O
  • SWATS (24 hrs): O
  • EBBR, (24 hrs): O
  • WSI, (every 10 min.) O
  • MWR, (24 hrs): O
  • IRT: X
  • MPL, (24 hrs): O
  • BLC, (24 hrs): O
  • AERI, (24 hrs): O
  • SORTI, (daytime, sunny): O
  • Raman Lidar (daytime): O
  • 60M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • 25M Upwelling IR: O
  • 25M Upwelling Solar: O
  • 10M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • Aerosol System: O
  • Radiosondes, (Every 3 hrs, from 1:30 UTC): O

 

CART Instrument Operations at Boundary Facilities

There are four staffed Boundary Facilities, each having Balloon Borne Sounding Systems (BBSS) and MicroWave Radiometers (MWR). During the IOP period, sondes are launched every three hours round the clock, starting at 5:30 GMT (12:30 CST). The sites are listed below. Times listed following a site indicate questionable data or failed sonde launches. Weather conditions are recorded in the Boundary Facilities Site Operator's Log.

  • Hillsboro, KS (BF-1): Okay
  • Vici, OK (BF-4): Okay
  • Morris, OK (BF-5): Okay
  • Purcell, OK (BF-6): Okay

 

CART Instrumentation at Extended Facilities

There are numerous unstaffed Extended Facilities. The specific instrumentation at the extended facilities varies from site to site, but generally includes a flux station (either an Energy Balance Bowen Ration (EBBR) system or an Eddy Correlation (ECOR) system), a Solar and InfraRed Observing System (SIROS), and a Standard Meteorology Observing Station (SMOS). For the locations of the Extended Facilities, and their suite of instrumentation, see the table and map of the Extended CART site. The comments below indicate specific data streams with identified problems.

  • Problem at Extended Facility:
  •  
  • E1: ECOR
  • E2: SIROS
  • E4: SIROS
  • E6: SIROS
  • E15: SIROS
  • E16: ECOR

 

Key Comments/Observations related to flights

 

1996-04-13

The ER-2 flew five, figure eight, overpasses of the CART site, with the last leg extended to overfly a convective cloud deck. The DC8 flew also.

Highlights

ER-2 lidar data from 4/13


Flight Reports

ER-2 Flight: 96102

Date: April 13, 1996

Mission: Radiation Measurement Mission Over ARM Site

Mission Objectives

Atmospheric radiation measurements over the ARM CART site. Comparison of ER-2 downlooking with surface based uplooking instruments.

Flight Track

Flight Summary

Take off was 1740 UTC and return time was 2020 UTC. ER-2 flew a figure eight pattern 2 1/2 times over ARM CART site (36 36.6'N 97 34.8'W) . Horizontal legs were approximately 70 nautical miles long. North bound leg was 295 degrees (true north), south bound 135 degreess. Final northbound leg was extended approximately 120 nautical miles past the ARM site to overpass developing convection.

Around 1800 UTC convective cells west of Witchita were seen on radar.

Highlights

Clear sky conditions useful for ARM science objectives. Overflight of convective cloud deck on return leg. Five passes over the ARM site (approximately1830, 1843; 1857; 1910 and 1923 UTC)).

Instrument Status

  • Modis Airborne Simulator (MAS): Operated. Good data collected.
  • Cloud Aerosol Lidar System (CALS): Operated. Good data collected.
  • High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS): Operated. Good data collected.
  • Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer(MIR): Operated. Good data collected.
  • Tilt Scan CCD Camera (TSCC): Operated - no data collected.
  • Radiation Measuring System (RAMS): Not flown.
  • RC-10 Camera: Operated (black and white - 6 inch lens).

Additional Pilot Notes:. Cloud free conditions over the ARM CART site.

Mission Summary

DC-8 SUCCESS flight #202 (scientist: Brian Toon)

SUMMARY: The basic flight went very well. All of the instruments are functioning, with some small problems left to be worked out. We met all of our major objectives, testing instruments, calibrating the MMS and transiting to Kansas. We also met most of our secondary objectives. We were able to sample our own contrail and cirrus for a significant period of time. However, the rendezvous with the T-38 did not work out due to logistical problems, and contrails were not present at the time it was attempted. Several preliminary science observations were made that are interesting, including size of ice crystals in cirrus and contrails, IWC of contrails, and possible compositional clues about ice nuclei.

Mission Objective

DC-8 TEST-FLIGHT

  • a second test for the instruments
  • to calibrate the MMS system with the canards on the aircraft
  • to transit to Kansas

Secondary goals are:

  • to investigate cirrus and contrails as found
  • to sample stratospheric air for part of the flight
  • to follow the NASA T-38 flown by Marty Knudsen to practice flying in exhaust.

 

Flight Log

OPERATIONS
FLIGHT PLAN:
Planned takeoff: 17.00 GMT (10.00 local time)
PART 1: Off California Coast. The plan here is to repeat the general pattern of the previous flight of 4/10/96 in a restricted space over the water. We will first do low altitude (5kft) boxes to calibrate the MMS. We will then ascend to about 20kft and again perform box manuevers. Finally, we will ascend to just below the tropopause and again perform box manuevers. The trop height will be identified from MMS in advance of the final altitude change. We will perform several 30o banking turns at max. altitude in an attempt to encounter our own exhaust/contrail. The lidar will be operated in a forward scanning mode during all of this period. Turns should be made to the right so that the lidar can see the contrail ahead of the aircraft. This portion of the flight will require about 2 hours.
PART 2: Transit across California and Nevada. There is some chance of encountering cirrus on this leg. Therefore we would like to stay just below the trop as measured by MMS, or descend if needed into cirrus. Laser in vertical mode.
PART 3: Transit across eastern Nevada and Utah. We expect no cirrus in this region. We would therefore like to cross into the stratosphere once we cross the jet. We will have to identify the location of the jet crossing in real time therefore, we will request max altitude possible on this leg. Laser off when we enter Denver airspace.
PART 4: Once we enter New Mexico it will again be possible to find cirrus. We would like to descend below the trop (from MMS) and locate an altitude where the DC-8 is making a good contrail.
PART 5: We will rendezvous with the T-38 over New Mexico and Kansas. Our emphasis is on in-situ observations of the exhaust rather than lidar. We will try to sample the exhaust or contrail of the T-38. It is not possible to fire the laser in a forward mode so we will use it in a vertical mode. If we cannot see the exhaust visually, we will use Weinheimer's instrument to try to identify when we are in the exhaust. We would like to stay in the exhaust for 3-4 min, then stay out of it for an equal period of time.
PART 6 Land in Kansas.

TAKEOFF/LANDING
The DC-8 left Ames at 17.15 UTC (10.15 am local time) and arrived at Salina at 22.30 UTC

FLIGHT REPORT
Take off was 17.14:34 GMT. Power up procedures are starting too late, and MMS still has problems maintaining the INS calibration during the power up sequence.
PART 1: The calibration manuevers for the MMS were successful at all altitudes. However, the pilots were not able to perform the Yaw manuevers at the highest altitude. At least 3 people were airsick from these manuevers. We also encountered cirrus over the ocean so we were able to test the ice instruments. The cirrus seemed to have relatively small particle sizes, so much of it may have been from old contrails. The pilots were able to do a thirty degree banking turn and stay within the contrail for much of each turn. The aircraft and the contrails cast a circular shadow on the ocean surface. Visually it was difficult to see the contrails ahead of the aircraft against the background of the pre-exisiting cirrus. However, it was clearly visible blowing over the cockpit of the DC-8.
PART 2: cirrus were present along this part of the flight. We crossed into the stratosphere near the Utah border. The DC-8 continued to lay a contrail even though we were a thousand feet above the trop.
PART 3: We were in the stratosphere here as desired.
PART 4: No cirrus were present along this leg, and the DC-8 did not lay a contrail. Even at 35kft the in situ sensors suggest that we are still in the stratosphere.
PART 5: We do not expect to see the T-38 contrail. Therefore, we are using the Weinheimer instruments and CN counters to look for the exhaust trail. The T-38 was easily visible from the DC-8 as it moved in front of us. However, given the airspeed difference, short flight time of the T-38, and problems in setting up the rendezvous not enough time was available to complete this exhaust manuever.

METEOROLOGY-REPORT
FORECAST: There are several rapidly moving systems crossing the US that may be encountered. In the region just off the California coast there may be cirrus near the tropopause, however cirrus is expected to build during the day, so we might be too early for it. Cirrus is also expected over Western Nevada. We should pass into the stratosphere over Eastern Navada and Utah as we cross a jet stream. No cirrus are expected in this region. Cirrus or contrails may also be present between New Mexico and Kansas. However, the cirrus are moving away as the day progresses so we might miss them.
OBSERVATIONS: There were cirrus and contrails present throughout the altitude range 25-39kft over the Pacific ocean. Numereous persistent contrails were present so it was often difficult to distinguish visually the contrails from cirrus. At 35kft where we did the final manuever for the MMS we had cirrus At take off broken fair weather cumulus were present with scattered cirrus over Ames. Local cirrus were not predicted earlier. Cirrus were not present over Oregon, or Northern California. The trop was also significantly lower than expected, so part of the flight to the north was in the stratosphere. We requested a descent into a low cloud deck, probably around 20kft on the south bound leg toward the restricted area.

INSTRUMENT STATUS
All of the instruments on the DC-8 are functional for this flight. The wing tip instruments are a replicator (Hallet), VIPS, MASP and 1-DC. When in cirrus the CVI would like altitude changes at 1000 ft/min or less.

  • BALLENTHIN: good shape, but mass spec is picking up odd peak when heater turned up.
  • BAUMGARDNER: Over heated in low level flights, then worked fine. Need to pull probe for calibration.
  • BRUNE: Much improved. Still had problems moving center body. Needs to install a new inlet on Sunday.
  • CHAN: Worked 95%. (missing two high frequency temperature sensors). Calibration successful.
  • COGGIOLA: Working well. Software still to work on. Some repairs made in flight.
  • COOPER: CCN had some lines freezing up so it was only run to -20C. CN worked fine, but did not show any enhancement in contrail interceptions.
  • DADS: Worked fine. But three stage humidty sensor failed.
  • FERRY: Impactors and data system worked fine.
  • GARY: Instrument worked fine.
  • GERBER: Worked just fine.
  • HAGEN: Some minor leaks, but basically worked well.
  • HALLET: replicator worked well, but there are some air flow problems in the PMS pod..
  • HEYMSFIELD: Almost everything worked ok. 1-D probe is not working. Saw high concentrations of small particles in contrail.
  • HUDSON: Worked well. Temperature control problem for 30 min. Pump not working well at high altitude. Saw CCN up by a factor of two in contrail.
  • LAWSON: Problems with probe false triggering so it was ineffective imaging ice crystals.
  • RODGERS: Ice growth at -15C affected ice nucleus counter. CN counter worked fine.
  • SACHSE: Dacom and water worked well, but high cabin temperature caused some drift.
  • TALBOT: No problems.
  • TWOHY: Reported that much of the cirrus over the Pacific seemed to contain involatile aerosols. There were about 2x10^3 of these per liter which is a high ice crystal concentration, assuming that each aerosol corresponded to one ice crystal. IWC in contrail similar to surrounding cirrus, the contrail had about 4 times as many particles. Everything working well.
  • UTHE: Lidar worked fine. Still working on software.
  • VALERO: Everything fine, but have one channel out on upward looking TDDR.
  • WEINHEIMER: Worked fine. Saw NOy on cirrus, and in DC-8 contrail. Needs more time at constant altitude.

 

Mission Highlights

 

  • The nuclei inside the ice crystals sampled over the ocean were not volatile (Twohy). This is a surprising result. Many of these cirrus may have been contrails.
  • The particle sizes in these clouds were surprinsingly small (Hallett, Twohy, Heymsfield), which is again consistent with old contrails.
  • NOy was seen on ice particles.

 


96/04/13 CART site activity

 

Meteorology at the Central Facility

Weather Conditions from Site Operators Log

Extensive cirrus and cirrostratus from 15:00 to 20:00. Some broken altocumulus later in the afternoon.

Visiting Instruments at Central Facilities

 

 

 

CART Instrument Operations at Central Facilities

Key: O = operational, X = down or degraded

  • RASS, 50 MHz, (hourly): X
  • RASS, 915 MHz, (hourly): O
  • BSRN: O
  • SIROS: O
  • SMOS, (24 hrs): O
  • SWATS (24 hrs): O
  • EBBR, (24 hrs): O
  • WSI, (every 10 min.) O
  • MWR, (24 hrs): O
  • IRT: X
  • MPL, (24 hrs): O
  • BLC, (24 hrs): O
  • AERI, (24 hrs): O
  • SORTI, (daytime, sunny): O
  • Raman Lidar (daytime): O
  • 60M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • 25M Upwelling IR: O
  • 25M Upwelling Solar: O
  • 10M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • Aerosol System: O
  • Radiosondes, (Every 3 hrs, from 1:30 UTC): O

 

CART Instrument Operations at Boundary Facilities

There are four staffed Boundary Facilities, each having Balloon Borne Sounding Systems (BBSS) and MicroWave Radiometers (MWR). During the IOP period, sondes are launched every three hours round the clock, starting at 5:30 GMT (12:30 CST). The sites are listed below. Times listed following a site indicate questionable data or failed sonde launches. Weather conditions are recorded in the Boundary Facilities Site Operator's Log.

  • Hillsboro, KS (BF-1): Okay
  • Vici, OK (BF-4): Okay
  • Morris, OK (BF-5): Okay
  • Purcell, OK (BF-6): Okay

 

CART Instrumentation at Extended Facilities

There are numerous unstaffed Extended Facilities. The specific instrumentation at the extended facilities varies from site to site, but generally includes a flux station (either an Energy Balance Bowen Ration (EBBR) system or an Eddy Correlation (ECOR) system), a Solar and InfraRed Observing System (SIROS), and a Standard Meteorology Observing Station (SMOS). For the locations of the Extended Facilities, and their suite of instrumentation, see the table and map of the Extended CART site. The comments below indicate specific data streams with identified problems.

  • Problem at Extended Facility
  • E1, ECOR
  • E2, SIROS
  • E4, SIROS
  • E15, SIROS
  • E16, ECOR

 

Key Comments/Observations related to flights

A good flight day for the ER-2 with several figure-8 overpasses above the CART.

 

1996-04-12

CART site activity

 

Meteorology at the Central Facility

Weather Conditions from Site Operators Log
Scattered, broken lenticular altocumulus throughout the day.

 

Visiting Instruments at Central Facilities

 

 

 

CART Instrument Operations at Central Facilities

Key: O = operational, X = down or degraded

  • RASS, 50 MHz, (hourly): O
  • RASS, 915 MHz, (hourly): O
  • BSRN: 0
  • SIROS: O
  • SMOS, (24 hrs): O
  • SWATS (24 hrs): O
  • EBBR, (24 hrs): O
  • WSI, (every 10 min.) O
  • MWR, (24 hrs): O
  • IRT: X
  • MPL, (24 hrs): X
  • BLC, (24 hrs): O
  • AERI, (24 hrs): O
  • SORTI, (daytime, sunny): O
  • Raman Lidar (daytime): X
  • 60M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • 25M Upwelling IR: O
  • 25M Upwelling Solar: O
  • 10M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • Aerosol System: X
  • Radiosondes, (Every 3 hrs, from 1:30 UTC): O

 

CART Instrument Operations at Boundary Facilities

There are four staffed Boundary Facilities, each having Balloon Borne Sounding Systems (BBSS) and MicroWave Radiometers (MWR). During the IOP period, sondes are launched every three hours round the clock, starting at 5:30 GMT (12:30 CST). The sites are listed below. Times listed following a site indicate questionable data or failed sonde launches. Weather conditions are recorded in the Boundary Facilities Site Operator's Log.

  • Hillsboro, KS (BF-1): Okay
  • Vici, OK (BF-4): Okay
  • Morris, OK (BF-5): Okay
  • Purcell, OK (BF-6): Okay

 

CART Instrumentation at Extended Facilities

There are numerous unstaffed Extended Facilities. The specific instrumentation at the extended facilities varies from site to site, but generally includes a flux station (either an Energy Balance Bowen Ration (EBBR) system or an Eddy Correlation (ECOR) system), a Solar and InfraRed Observing System (SIROS), and a Standard Meteorology Observing Station (SMOS) tower. For the locations of the Extended Facilities, and their suite of instrumentation, see the table and map of the Extended CART site. The comments below indicate specific data streams with identified problems.

  • Problem at Extended Facility
  • E1: ECOR
  • E2: SIROS
  • E4: SIROS
  • E12: EBBR, SIROS
  • E16: ECOR
  •  

 

Key Comments/Observations related to flights

 

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