1996-05-02

The DC-8 and ER-2 flew a coordinated mission over Boulder, Co. to sample a wave-cloud and study the effects of the DC-8 exhaust and contrails on the wave-cloud. The DC-8 flew in and out of the wave-cloud while the ER-2 flew above. Measurements were coordinated with the NOAA-14 satellite overpass at 4 UTC.

Highlights

Wave Structure (96502)
In the following gif images, several fields are plotted versus distance along DC-8 flight tracks upwind of the wave-cloud. Plots are shown for each of the 4 legs aligned with the wind. The fields plotted are:

  • Potential temperature contours (vs. z and x) from MTP data (white) [B. Gary]
  • MMS DC-8 static air temperature (red) [R. Chan]
  • Laser hygrometer H2O mixing ratios (cyan) [G. Sachse]
  • relative humidity with respect to ice (RHI) (green)
  • CVI ice crystal number density (magenta) [Twohy, Gandrud]

The potential temperature surfaces slope upward/downward as the DC-8 flew into/out of the wave-cloud. The increase in RHI in the wave-crest is due to both the increase in H2O and the decrease in T. Updraft speeds estimated from the slope in theta surfaces and the wind speed range from 0.75 to 1.5 m/s. The peak CVI ice crystal number densities in wave-cloud penetrations (not shown) were 5-10/cc. Given the updraft speeds and temperatures, these number densities are consistent with theoretical calculations. Large peak supersaturations also occur at the leading edge of the cloud (20-50%).

All of the data shown here is preliminary. Refinements in calibrations are needed to improve accuracy.


Flight Reports

ER-2 Flight: 96110

Date: May 02, 1996

Mission Objectives

Observe the effect of DC-8 aircraft exhaust and contrails on wave clouds.

Flight Track

Flight Summary

Take-off time was 1630 UTC. ER-2 followed the DC-8 to SE Wyoming. No set patterns were flown. The ER-2 followed the DC-8 south again. The ER-2 flew several runs behind the DC-8. ER-2 pilot reported heavy turbulence at flight altitude. The ER-2 flew over contrails and was level in a run at a NOAA overpass at 2035 UTC.

Highlights

Runs for wave cloud near Boulder, CO.

Instrument Status

  • MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS): Operated. Good data collected.
  • Cloud Aerosol Lidar System (CALS): Operated. Good data collected.
  • High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS): Operated up to 1935 UTC. Failed apparently due to shaking from turbulence and problems in reset procedure.
  • Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer(MIR): Operated. Good data collected.
  • Tilt Scan CCD Camera (TSCC): Operated up to 1910 UTC.
  • Radiation Measuring System (RAMS): Operated. Good data collected.
  • RC-10 Camera: Operated (black and white visible film- 6 inch lens).

Additional Pilot Notes: Highly turbulent flight.

Mission Summary

DC-8 SUCCESS flight #212 [960212] (scientist: Eric Jensen)

SUMMARY: The basic flight went well. After a few hours of searching, we found an ideal wave-cloud east over Boulder, Colorado, at about 39 K' (around -63 C). We flew about 2.5 patterns through the cloud. The vertical displacement in the wave appeared to be about 2000 ft. The vertical displacement was also evident in the MTP measurements. Measurements made near the leading edge should be very useful for understanding ice nucleation processes.

Mission Objective

  • sample wave-clouds over Medicine Bow, WY
  • deposit exhaust upwind of the clouds and let the ER-2 (which images the clouds from above) determine, if the exhaust has any impact on the clouds
  • sample the leading edge of the cloud to determine the ice nucleation activity spectrum

Flight Log

OPERATIONS
FLIGHT PLAN:
We will transit to Medicine Bow Wyoming (41 deg. 22 min., 106 deg. 19 min.) at 35 K' and determine whether wave-clouds are present. If the clouds are absent or too high to sample, we will fly to a range in northern Wyoming (44 deg. 22 min., 107 deg 10 min.) and fly along the range to look for wave-clouds.
Starting near the highest point in the wave-cloud, we will fly upwind, following potential temperature surfaces, through the leading edge of the cloud and upwind 15 min. Then we will turn and fly back up our exhaust trail back into the cloud. Next, we will turn 270 deg. and fly a 10 min. leg normal to the wind, along the leading edge of the cloud. Finally, we will execute a dog-leg turn and fly another 10 min. leg along the leading edge of the cloud, attempting to intersect our exhaust trail flowing into the cloud. This pattern should take about an hour.
We will repeat this pattern 3 times. After the first pattern, the ER-2 should arrive and fly a compact pattern above the leading edge of the cloud. No strict coordination with the ER-2 is required other than sending them the point on our track normal to the wind at the leading edge of the cloud.

TAKEOFF/LANDING
The DC-8 left Salina at 16.35 UTC (11.35 am local time) and returned to Salina at 22.45 UTC

FLIGHT REPORT
We proceeded to Medicine Bow at 35-37 K', but no wave-clouds were apparent. Extensive cirrus were visible at lower altitudes. Next, we shifted the pattern to the southeast (41.48 deg, 105.58 deg), but again, no waveclouds were nearby. We were nearly ready to give up when wave-clouds were spotted to the south. We extended our N-S (cross-wind) leg about 50 miles south to get in to the clouds.
We flew the designated pattern twice. On the first pattern, we stayed at 39 K'. On the second pattern, we descended to 37 K' at the beginning of the upwind leg. This descent appeared to maintain constant potential temperature. When we penetrated the leading edge the second time, we ascended to 41 K'. We appeared to be skimming the cloud-top at this altitude.
At the end of the second pattern, we turned back south along the leading edge and then flew east downwind through the cloud at 39 K'. We maintained constant altitude for 15 min. downwind of the cloud, and then headed home.

METEOROLOGY-REPORT
OBSERVATIONS: As expected, tropopause was low and warm: near 10 km and -50 C. Popcorn cumulous was present at about 3-5 K'.

INSTRUMENT STATUS
All instruments are functioning.

  • BALLENTHIN: No problems
  • BAUMGARDNER: No problems
  • BRUNE: No problems
  • CHAN: No problems
  • COGGIOLA: No problems
  • COOPER: No problems with CN, IN worked better.
  • DADS: No problems
  • FERRY: No problems
  • GARY: No problems
  • GERBER: No problems
  • HAGEN: No problems
  • HALLET: No problems
  • HEYMSFIELD: Potential problem with recording cryogenic hygrometer data.
  • HUDSON: No problems
  • LAWSON: Periods of false triggers.
  • RODGERS: No problems
  • SACHSE: No problems
  • TALBOT: No problems
  • TWOHY: No problems
  • UTHE: No problems
  • VALERO: No problems
  • WEINHEIMER: No problems

Mission Highlights

  • large oscillations in the tropopause height associated with the mountain waves
  • very small crystals in wave-clouds (5-20 microns).

96/05/02 CART site activity

Meteorology at the Central Facility

Weather Conditions from Site Operators Log

 

Visiting Instruments at Central Facilities

 

 

CART Instrument Operations at Central Facilities

Key: O = operational, X = down or degraded

  • RASS, 50 MHz, (hourly): O
  • RASS, 915 MHz, (hourly): O
  • BSRN: O
  • SIROS: O
  • SMOS, (24 hrs): O
  • SWATS (24 hrs): O
  • EBBR, (24 hrs): O
  • WSI, (every 10 min.) X
  • MWR, (24 hrs): O
  • IRT: X
  • MPL, (24 hrs): O
  • BLC, (24 hrs): O
  • AERI, (24 hrs): O
  • SORTI, (daytime, sunny): O
  • Raman Lidar (daytime): X
  • 60M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M IRT: O
  • 25M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • 25M Upwelling IR: O
  • 25M Upwelling Solar: O
  • 10M IRT: O
  • 10M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • Aerosol System: X
  • Radiosondes, (Every 3 hrs, from 1:30 UTC): O

 

CART Instrument Operations at Boundary Facilities

There are four staffed Boundary Facilities, each having Balloon Borne Sounding Systems (BBSS) and MicroWave Radiometers (MWR). During the IOP period, sondes are launched every three hours round the clock, starting at 5:30 GMT (12:30 CST). The sites are listed below. Times listed following a site indicate questionable data or failed sonde launches. Weather conditions are recorded in the Boundary Facilities Site Operator's Log.

  • Hillsboro, KS (BF-1): Okay
  • Vici, OK (BF-4): Okay
  • Morris, OK (BF-5): Okay
  • Purcell, OK (BF-6): Okay

 

CART Instrumentation at Extended Facilities

There are numerous unstaffed Extended Facilities. The specific instrumentation at the extended facilities varies from site to site, but generally includes a flux station (either an Energy Balance Bowen Ration (EBBR) system or an Eddy Correlation (ECOR) system), a Solar and InfraRed Observing System (SIROS), and a Standard Meteorology Observing Station (SMOS). For the locations of the Extended Facilities, and their suite of instrumentation, see the table and map of the Extended CART site. The comments below indicate specific data streams with identified problems.

  • Problem at Extended Facility:
  • E2: SIROS
  • E7: SMOS, EBBR, SIROS
  • E9: EBBR
  • E10: ECOR, SIROS
  • E16: ECOR
  • E20: SMOS, EBBR, SIROS
  • E24: SIROS

 

Key Comments/Observations related to flights

Mixture of cirrus and contrails, non-flight day.

1996-05-01

96/05/01 CART site activity

 

Meteorology at the Central Facility

Weather Conditions from Site Operators Log

 

Visiting Instruments at Central Facilities

 

 

 

CART Instrument Operations at Central Facilities

Key: O = operational, X = down or degraded

  • RASS, 50 MHz, (hourly): O
  • RASS, 915 MHz, (hourly): O
  • BSRN: O
  • SIROS: O
  • SMOS, (24 hrs): O
  • SWATS (24 hrs): O
  • EBBR, (24 hrs): O
  • WSI, (every 10 min.) O
  • MWR, (24 hrs): O
  • IRT: X
  • MPL, (24 hrs): O
  • BLC, (24 hrs): O
  • AERI, (24 hrs): O
  • SORTI, (daytime, sunny): O
  • Raman Lidar (daytime): X
  • 60M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M IRT: O
  • 25M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • 25M Upwelling IR: O
  • 25M Upwelling Solar: O
  • 10M IRT: O
  • 10M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • Aerosol System: X
  • Radiosondes, (Every 3 hrs, from 1:30 UTC): O

 

CART Instrument Operations at Boundary Facilities

There are four staffed Boundary Facilities, each having Balloon Borne Sounding Systems (BBSS) and MicroWave Radiometers (MWR). During the IOP period, sondes are launched every three hours round the clock, starting at 5:30 GMT (12:30 CST). The sites are listed below. Times listed following a site indicate questionable data or failed sonde launches. Weather conditions are recorded in the Boundary Facilities Site Operator's Log.

  • Hillsboro, KS (BF-1): Okay
  • Vici, OK (BF-4): Okay
  • Morris, OK (BF-5): Okay
  • Purcell, OK (BF-6): Okay

 

CART Instrumentation at Extended Facilities

There are numerous unstaffed Extended Facilities. The specific instrumentation at the extended facilities varies from site to site, but generally includes a flux station (either an Energy Balance Bowen Ration (EBBR) system or an Eddy Correlation (ECOR) system), a Solar and InfraRed Observing System (SIROS), and a Standard Meteorology Observing Station (SMOS). For the locations of the Extended Facilities, and their suite of instrumentation, see the table and map of the Extended CART site. The comments below indicate specific data streams with identified problems.

  • Problem at Extended Facility:
  • E1: SMOS, ECOR
  • E2: SIROS
  • E3: SMOS, SIROS
  • E4: SMOS, SIROS
  • E5:
  • E6: SIROS
  • E7: SIROS
  • E10: SIROS
  • E16: ECOR
  • E20: SIROS, SMOS, EBBR
  • E24: SIROS

 

Key Comments/Observations related to flights

1996-04-30

The DC-8, T-39 and B757 flew a coordinated mission north of Albuquerque, NM. to sample in and near a wave-cloud and the B757 emissions. The DC-8 sampled the B757 exhaust, not closer than ten miles. The T-39 d B757 exhaust sampling after both aircraft left the New Mexico airspace while DC-8 continued wave-cloud sampling.

Flight Reports

DC-8 SUCCESS flight #211 [960211] (scientists: Brian Toon and Eric Jensen)

SUMMARY: The flight was primarily successful: We did find and sample a wave-cloud. Measurements in and around the cloud should be very interesting. Sampling the 757 plume was more difficult than expected. We did not get closer than about 10 mi., we were not directly along the wind, and the 757 was not making a substantial contrail.

Mission Objective

DC-8 TEST-FLIGHT
take advantage of the simple, well-defined dynamics and sharp cloud boundary at the leading edge of wave clouds over the Rocky Mountains:

  • deposit exhaust upwind of the wave cloud
  • sample the leading edge of the wave cloud to determine the ice nucleation activity spectrum and if the exhaust has any impact on the wave cloud

follow the 757 (on the outbound leg) to

  • sample 757 exhaust
  • determine how close we can get

 

Flight Track

 

Flight Log

OPERATIONS
FLIGHT PLAN:
Part 1: Transit to New Mexico with DC-8 sampling 757 exhaust
The 757 and T-39 will take off together and fly in formation to New Mexico. The DC-8 will take off shortly after the 757 and T-39, and follow them at 10-20 miles out. We will attempt to sample their exhaust and see how close we can get without too much turbulence.
Part 2: Wave Cloud sampling and seeding programs
Starting near the highest point in the wave-cloud, we will fly upwind, following potential temperature surfaces, through the leading edge of the cloud and upwind 15 min. Then we will turn and fly back up our exhaust trail back into the cloud. Next, we will turn 270 deg. and fly a 10 min. leg normal to the wind, along the leading edge of the cloud. Finally, we will execute a dog-leg turn and fly another 10 min. leg along the leading edge of the cloud, attempting to intersect our exhaust trail flowing into the cloud. This pattern should take about an hour.
We will repeat this pattern 3 times. After the first pattern, the ER-2 should arrive and fly a compact pattern above the leading edge of the cloud. No strict coordination with the ER-2 is required other than sending them the point on our track normal to the wind at the leading edge of the cloud.
Part 3: Transit back to Salina

TAKEOFF/LANDING
The DC-8 left Salina at 17.29 UTC (12.29 am local time) and returned to Salina at 20.40 UTC

FLIGHT REPORT
During the transit to New Mexico (35 deg. 58 min., 105 deg., 30 min.), we flew 15 min. legs at 18, 27, and 35 K' 10 mi. behind the 757. The wind was about 30 deg. off our flight track, and the 757 generated only a small contrail only on the 35 K' leg. We crossed the 757 exhaust plume several times, but were never able to stay in it longer than a few sec. The plume crossings were detected by minor turbulence and the chemistry and CN measurements.
At the designated wave-cloud point, a wave-cloud was present, but it was at or above 41 K', so we had no chance of flying in it until the end of the flight. We then headed south to a cluster of lenticular clouds that appeared to be lower. We flew through these clouds several times at 28-29 K'. We were unable to fly upwind due to a restricted area just upwind. We flew cross-wind legs, attempting to fly upwind of the clouds, in the leading edge, in the middle of the cloud, and downwind. The cloud cluster consisted of several separate lenticular clouds with leading edges in different locations, so the pilots had to maneuver considerably to stay in the leading edge as much as possible.
Eventually, we headed back to our original waypoint to sample the high wave-clouds. When we got there we discovered that the bulk of the cloud had shifted north. We flew through a thin patch of cirrus at 41 K', did the MMS maneuvers, and headed back to Salina.

METEOROLOGY-REPORT
FORECAST: Wave-clouds are expected over mountains in northern and central New Mexico with relatively cold cloud tops. Short-lived contrails are expected during the transit to New Mexico.
OBSERVATIONS: Most wave clouds were above 40000ft and could not be reached.

INSTRUMENT STATUS
All instruments are functioning.

  • BALLENTHIN: Lost data due to computer crash.
  • BAUMGARDNER: No problems
  • BRUNE: No problems
  • CHAN: No problems
  • COGGIOLA: Failure after 2-3 hours. Need replacement part.
  • COOPER: No problems with CN, IN not operational.
  • DADS: RHI was flagged several times.
  • FERRY: No problems
  • GARY: No problems
  • GERBER: Probe did not work properly. Unknown prognosis.
  • HAGEN: No problems
  • HALLET: No problems
  • HEYMSFIELD: No problems
  • HUDSON: No problems
  • LAWSON: No problems
  • RODGERS: No problems
  • SACHSE: No problems
  • TALBOT: No problems
  • TWOHY: No problems
  • UTHE: No problems
  • VALERO: No problems
  • WEINHEIMER: No problems

 

Mission Highlights

 

  • wave clouds at 28-29 K' (about -38 C), had dark leading edges that appeared to be liquid water (Heymsfield indicated that these tips had low concentrations of spherical ice crystals; Hallett indicated that only a brief period of pure liquid water was observed)
  • MASP indicated extremely high particle concentrations in the wave cloud
  • persistent contrails were observed through most of the flight, especially during the outbound transit, and always above 41 K'
  • very low CN concentrations were observed at upper levels in the flight
  • water vapor concentrations appeared to drop when we went into the wave-clouds.

Mission Objective

T-39 Flight 11

  • To conduct sampling of the NASA 757 exhaust emissions under a variety of atmospheric conditions.

 

Flight Log

TAKEOFF/LANDING:
The T-39 departed SLN at 1708UTC and returned at 1941UTC

FLIGHT REPORT:
Departed SLN in formation with the B757 with the DC-8 trailing 10 Nm behind. Performed near-field sampling during ascends and at level at 18, 23, 31, 35, and 37 kft.

METEOROLOGY-REPORT:

INSTRUMENT STATUS:

  • CIMS - mass spec - WORKED
  • MS - Met/Nav system - Down for half of flight due to electrical problems.
  • AMS - Air Motion Sensor - WORKED
  • NDIR - CO2 - WORKED
  • 3760 - fine CN - WORKED
  • 3025 - ultra fine CN - WORKED
  • FSSP - 0.3-20um aerosols - under repair
  • PCASP - 0.1-3um aerosols - WORKED

 

Highlights

 

  • Obtained the first near-field trace gas and aerosol sampling behind a B757 at cruise altitude.
  • Recorded very interesting video of contrail dynamics and evaporation.

96/04/30 CART site activity

 

Meteorology at the Central Facility

Weather Conditions from Site Operators Log

 

Visiting Instruments at Central Facilities

 

 

 

CART Instrument Operations at Central Facilities

Key: O = operational, X = down or degraded

  • RASS, 50 MHz, (hourly): O
  • RASS, 915 MHz, (hourly): O
  • BSRN: O
  • SIROS: O
  • SMOS, (24 hrs): O
  • SWATS (24 hrs): O
  • EBBR, (24 hrs): O
  • WSI, (every 10 min.) X
  • MWR, (24 hrs): O
  • IRT: X
  • MPL, (24 hrs): O
  • BLC, (24 hrs): O
  • AERI, (24 hrs): O
  • SORTI, (daytime, sunny): O
  • Raman Lidar (daytime): X
  • 60M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M IRT: O
  • 25M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • 25M Upwelling IR: O
  • 25M Upwelling Solar: O
  • 10M IRT: O
  • 10M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • Aerosol System: X
  • Radiosondes, (Every 3 hrs, from 1:30 UTC): O

 

CART Instrument Operations at Boundary Facilities

There are four staffed Boundary Facilities, each having Balloon Borne Sounding Systems (BBSS) and MicroWave Radiometers (MWR). During the IOP period, sondes are launched every three hours round the clock, starting at 5:30 GMT (12:30 CST). The sites are listed below. Times listed following a site indicate questionable data or failed sonde launches. Weather conditions are recorded in the Boundary Facilities Site Operator's Log.

  • Hillsboro, KS (BF-1): Okay
  • Vici, OK (BF-4): Okay
  • Morris, OK (BF-5): Okay
  • Purcell, OK (BF-6): Okay

 

CART Instrumentation at Extended Facilities

There are numerous unstaffed Extended Facilities. The specific instrumentation at the extended facilities varies from site to site, but generally includes a flux station (either an Energy Balance Bowen Ration (EBBR) system or an Eddy Correlation (ECOR) system), a Solar and InfraRed Observing System (SIROS), and a Standard Meteorology Observing Station (SMOS). For the locations of the Extended Facilities, and their suite of instrumentation, see the table and map of the Extended CART site. The comments below indicate specific data streams with identified problems.

  • Problem at Extended Facility:
  • E1: ECOR
  • E2: SIROS
  • E3: SIROS
  • E4: SIROS
  • E6: SIROS
  • E7: SIROS
  • E8: SMOS, EBBR
  • E9: SMOS, EBBR
  • E10: SIROS
  • E11: SMOS
  • E16: ECOR
  • E20: SMOS, EBBR, SIROS
  • E24: SIROS

 

Key Comments/Observations related to flights

Morning has clear sky, best cirrus later in afternoon. Success went to Wyoming...

1996-04-29

The DC-8 and T-39 flew a coordinated mission over the CART site to profile stratus clouds and aerosols, and to provide data (FSSP) which will be useful for CART site radar systems calibration. The T-39 sampled the DC-8 exhaust at various altitudes, penetrating the stratosphere.

Flight Reports

Mission Summary

DC-8 SUCCESS flight #210 [960210] (scientists: Brian Toon and Eric Jensen)

SUMMARY: The basic flight went very well. Today's flight should provide a good dataset for calibration of the radar at the CART site. We also profiled the aerosols and our (DC-8) exhaust was sampled by the T-39 in the stratosphere.

Mission Objective

DC-8 TEST-FLIGHT

  • profile a stratus cloud in the boundary layer over the CART site to help in calibration of the radar, and interpretation of ER-2 spectra
  • profile the aerosols in the troposphere and lower stratosphere
  • study the DC-8 exhaust with the T-39

 

Flight Track

 

Flight Log

OPERATIONS
FLIGHT PLAN:
Take off is planned for 1600 UT, 1100 am LT. We will proceed to the CART site and make two low level 15 minutes runs in the boundary layer near 3000 ft, centered on the CART site, along the wind. Then we will make 15 minute runs over the CART site at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 37, and 41 K'. The T-39 will join us at 20 K'.

TAKEOFF/LANDING
The DC-8 left Salina at 16.03 UTC (11.03 am local time) and returned to Salina at 20.40 UTC

FLIGHT REPORT
Two legs were flown in the boundary layer stratocumulous over the CART site. The altitude varied from about 3500 to 5500 feet on these legs, as we attempted to stay in the clouds. The first leg was about 25 min. long, and the second leg was shortened to 15 min. (just past the CART site). We then flew 15 min. legs at 10, 15, 20, 25, 31, and 41 K'. The tropopause appeared to be very low (about 25 K'), but the temperature structure was very complicated. At the end of the 41 K' leg, three Lagrangian circles were flown, dropping about 80' per circle. CN and gas concentration measurements indicated several plume crossings.

METEOROLOGY-REPORT
FORECAST: We expect that a stratocumulus deck (possibly broken) will be present in boundary layer, and that it will be clear above. We expect the tropopause near 35 kft. Winds are forecast at 20-50 knots, 350 deg.
OBSERVATIONS: Stratocumulous was present over the CART site. The clouds were broken most of the time, and one relatively strong cell was penetrated on the second leg. Above the stratus, a few wispy cirrus were present at 15-20 K'. No contrails were observed all day.

INSTRUMENT STATUS
All instruments are functioning.

  • BALLENTHIN: No problems
  • BAUMGARDNER: No problems
  • BRUNE: No problems, except for missing NO.
  • CHAN: No problems
  • COGGIOLA: Possible failure of main data aquisition board.
  • COOPER: CCN/IN instrument failed.
  • DADS: Minor problems with 2-stage hygrometer early in flight.
  • FERRY: No problems
  • GARY: No problems
  • GERBER: No problems
  • HAGEN: No problems
  • HALLET: No problems
  • HEYMSFIELD: No problems
  • HUDSON: No problems
  • LAWSON: Failure due to cable problem.
  • RODGERS: No problems with CN. IN appeared to have a leak.
  • SACHSE: No problems
  • TALBOT: No problems
  • TWOHY: No problems
  • UTHE: Had one temporary computer failure
  • VALERO: No problems
  • WEINHEIMER: No problems

 

Mission Highlights

 

  • FSSP measurements in the stratus clouds should provide a good dataset for calibration of the radar at the CART site - most particles were smaller than 20 microns
  • substantial amounts of particulate NOy were observed in the stratocumulus with a peak near the cloud tops
  • a complicated tropopause structure was observed
  • the DC-8 exhaust plume was sampled in the clean stratospheric environment

Mission Objective

T-39 Flight 10

  • To conduct sampling of the DC-8 emissions at a variety of atmospheric conditions.

 

Flight Log

TAKEOFF/LANDING:
The T-39 departed SLN at 1727UTC and returned at 2000UTC

FLIGHT REPORT:
The T-39 accomplished a rendezvous with the DC-8 over the CART site at 20kft. The T-39 flew a racetrack course up and down wind with the DC-8 leading at altitudes of 20, 25, 31 and 41 kft.

METEOROLOGY-REPORT:

INSTRUMENT STATUS:

  • CIMS - mass spec - WORKED
  • MS - Met/Nav system - WORKED (No GPS)
  • AMS - Air Motion Sensor - WORKED
  • NDIR - CO2 - WORKED
  • 3760 - fine CN - WORKED
  • 3025 - ultra fine CN - WORKED
  • FSSP - 0.3-20um aerosols - Software problem
  • PCASP - 0.1-3um aerosols - WORKED

 

Highlights

 

  • performed several plume crossings at aircraft separations varying from 0.05 to 4 km.
  • Recorded outstanding video of DC-8 and T-39 flight dynamics in wake crossings.

96/04/29 CART site activity

 

Meteorology at the Central Facility

Weather Conditions from Site Operators Log
Low stratus and some scattered cumulus predominated. Some virga present, light mist or rain was felt around 20:00. Moderate winds of 15-20 mph were from the north and northwest. A light haze persisted throughout the day.

 

Visiting Instruments at Central Facilities

 

 

 

CART Instrument Operations at Central Facilities

Key: O = operational, X = down or degraded

  • RASS, 50 MHz, (hourly): O
  • RASS, 915 MHz, (hourly): O
  • BSRN: O
  • SIROS: O
  • SMOS, (24 hrs): O
  • SWATS (24 hrs): O
  • EBBR, (24 hrs): O
  • WSI, (every 10 min.) O
  • MWR, (24 hrs): O
  • IRT: X
  • MPL, (24 hrs): O
  • BLC, (24 hrs): O
  • AERI, (24 hrs): O
  • SORTI, (daytime, sunny): O
  • Raman Lidar (daytime): X
  • 60M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M IRT: O
  • 25M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • 25M Upwelling IR: O
  • 25M Upwelling Solar: O
  • 10M IRT: O
  • 10M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • Aerosol System: X
  • Radiosondes, (Every 3 hrs, from 1:30 UTC): O

 

CART Instrument Operations at Boundary Facilities

There are four staffed Boundary Facilities, each having Balloon Borne Sounding Systems (BBSS) and MicroWave Radiometers (MWR). During the IOP period, sondes are launched every three hours round the clock, starting at 5:30 GMT (12:30 CST). The sites are listed below. Times listed following a site indicate questionable data or failed sonde launches. Weather conditions are recorded in the Boundary Facilities Site Operator's Log.

  • Hillsboro, KS (BF-1): Okay
  • Vici, OK (BF-4): Okay
  • Morris, OK (BF-5): Okay
  • Purcell, OK (BF-6): Okay

 

CART Instrumentation at Extended Facilities

There are numerous unstaffed Extended Facilities. The specific instrumentation at the extended facilities varies from site to site, but generally includes a flux station (either an Energy Balance Bowen Ration (EBBR) system or an Eddy Correlation (ECOR) system), a Solar and InfraRed Observing System (SIROS), and a Standard Meteorology Observing Station (SMOS). For the locations of the Extended Facilities, and their suite of instrumentation, see the table and map of the Extended CART site. The comments below indicate specific data streams with identified problems.

  • Problem at Extended Facility:
  • E1: ECOR
  • E2: SIROS
  • E3: SIROS
  • E4: SIROS
  • E6: SIROS
  • E7: SIROS
  • E10: SIROS
  • E16: ECOR
  • E20: SMOS, EBBR, SIROS
  • E24: SIROS

 

Key Comments/Observations related to flights

Two low altitude passes were made by the DC-8 through the early stratus clouds. The MPL reported these stratus between 1-2 km. Later higher altitude flights with the DC-8 and T-39 were difficult to observe from the ground due to low clouds.

1996-04-28

96/04/28 CART site activity

 

Meteorology at the Central Facility

Weather Conditions from Site Operators Log

 

Visiting Instruments at Central Facilities

 

 

 

CART Instrument Operations at Central Facilities

Key: O = operational, X = down or degraded

  • RASS, 50 MHz, (hourly): O
  • RASS, 915 MHz, (hourly): O
  • BSRN: O
  • SIROS: O
  • SMOS, (24 hrs): O
  • SWATS (24 hrs): O
  • EBBR, (24 hrs): O
  • WSI, (every 10 min.) O
  • MWR, (24 hrs): O
  • IRT: X
  • MPL, (24 hrs): O
  • BLC, (24 hrs): O
  • AERI, (24 hrs): O
  • SORTI, (daytime, sunny): O
  • Raman Lidar (daytime): O
  • 60M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M IRT: O
  • 25M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • 25M Upwelling IR: O
  • 25M Upwelling Solar: O
  • 10M IRT: O
  • 10M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • Aerosol System: O
  • Radiosondes, (Every 3 hrs, from 1:30 UTC): O

 

CART Instrument Operations at Boundary Facilities

There are four staffed Boundary Facilities, each having Balloon Borne Sounding Systems (BBSS) and MicroWave Radiometers (MWR). During the IOP period, sondes are launched every three hours round the clock, starting at 5:30 GMT (12:30 CST). The sites are listed below. Times listed following a site indicate questionable data or failed sonde launches. Weather conditions are recorded in the Boundary Facilities Site Operator's Log.

  • Hillsboro, KS (BF-1): Okay
  • Vici, OK (BF-4): Okay
  • Morris, OK (BF-5): Okay
  • Purcell, OK (BF-6): Okay

 

CART Instrumentation at Extended Facilities

There are numerous unstaffed Extended Facilities. The specific instrumentation at the extended facilities varies from site to site, but generally includes a flux station (either an Energy Balance Bowen Ration (EBBR) system or an Eddy Correlation (ECOR) system), a Solar and InfraRed Observing System (SIROS), and a Standard Meteorology Observing Station (SMOS). For the locations of the Extended Facilities, and their suite of instrumentation, see the table and map of the Extended CART site. The comments below indicate specific data streams with identified problems.

  • Problem at Extended Facility:
  • E1: ECOR
  • E2: SIROS
  • E3: SIROS
  • E4: SIROS
  • E6: SIROS
  • E7: SIROS
  • E10: SIROS
  • E16: ECOR
  • E24: SIROS

 

Key Comments/Observations related to flights

Variable low clouds, poor ground-based remote sensing opportunities.

1996-04-27

The DC-8, T-39 and ER-2 flew a coordinated mission over the CART site to profile optically thick cirrus, and to make coordinated measurements with the NOAA-14 satellite overpass at 1947 UTC. The DC-8 ascended in an up and down wind racetrack pattern before descending in slow spirals. The T-39 and DC-8 took turns sampling each others emissions and contrails. The ER-2 flew a racetrack pattern approximately ten degrees off the DC-8 orientation and in the opposite directions. During the NOAA-14 overpass the DC-8 created contrails while flying in circles with the ER-2 flying oriented in the principle plane of the sun.

Highlights

Flight Reports

ER-2 Flight: 96109

Date: April 27, 1996

Mission: Coordinated flight between ER-2, DC-8 and TC-39 over ARM CART site during time of NOAA-14 satellite satellite overpass.

Mission Objectives

T-39 and DC-8 coordinated flight patterns to sample contrails and exhaust. CART site overflown by ER-2, DC-8 and T-39 for combined ground-based uplooking and ER-2 based downlooking characterization of clouds.

Observe cirrus and contrails during overpass of the NOAA-14 satellite to assist in the development of satellite remote sensing techniques.

 

Flight Track

Flight Summary

Take-off time was 1600 UTC with landing at 2135 UTC. ER-2 flew to ARM CART site and flew racetrack patterns oriented approximately 10 degrees off the DC-8 orientation and in the opposite direction. At 1916 UTC ER-2 changed orientation of racetrack to be in the principle plane of the sun for coordination with the satellite overpass.

Highlights

Approximately 20 passes over the ARM CART site including coincident data with NOAA-14 (ER-2 over CART site at 1946 UTC).

Instrument Status

  • MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS): Operated. Good data collected.
  • Cloud Aerosol Lidar System (CALS): Operated. Good data collected.
  • High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS): Operated. Good data collected.
  • Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer(MIR): Operated. Good data collected.
  • Tilt Scan CCD Camera (TSCC): Operated. Good data collected.
  • Radiation Measuring System (RAMS): Operated. Good data collected.
  • RC-10 Camera: Operated (black and white visible film- 6 inch lens).

Additional Pilot Notes: Solid overcast conditions over the ARM CART site until near the end of the mission when clouds began to break-up north of the site. At 1956 UTC ER-2 passed over a contrail but pilot wasn't sure if it was generated by the DC-8 or commercial aircraft. Pilot noted that from time to time cirrus overcast seemed to be casued by commerical acircraft. Pilot observed contrail remnents during mission.

Mission Summary

DC-8 SUCCESS flight #209 [960207] (scientist: Brian Toon)

SUMMARY: This flight met its basic objectives. We did sample the T-39 contrail for a substantial period of time. Very small particles of ice were seen. There was some variation in the contail properties with our position in the contrail. We also did a successful profile of the clouds over the CART site. We did not make a persistent contrail in the satellite overpass period. Calibration of the instruments went fine.

Mission Objective

DC-8 TEST-FLIGHT

  • sample the contrail of the T-39
  • profile cirrus and midlevel clouds over the CART site
  • make a contrail during the satellite (NOAA 14) overpass
  • perform manuevers to calibrate MMS and the radiometers
  • pass through wave-clouds over New Mexico (optional)

 

Flight Track

 

Flight Log

OPERATIONS
FLIGHT PLAN:
Take off is planned for 16.00 UTC (11.00 am local time).
The plan is to proceed to as high an alititude as possible with the DC-8 following the T-39. We will then follow the T-39 on race tracks for about 1 hr. The goal is to sample its exhaust and its contrail as well as to test the lidar. Then we will spiral down at less than 1000 ft/ min over the CART site and begin profiling the clouds. At about 19.20 UTC we will make three circles over the CART site so that we have made a contrail for a NOAA satellite overpass (19.47 UTC). We will then make a square box centered over the CART site to calibrate the radiometers and MTP. Then we will again spiral over the CART site and make a final profile of the clouds. If wave clouds are present we may break off to find them either after the T-39 and first spiral, or just after the satellite overpass.

TAKEOFF/LANDING
The DC-8 left Salina at 16.08 UTC (11.08 am local time) and returned to Salina at 21.30 UTC

FLIGHT REPORT
We flew the planned pattern over the CART site.

METEOROLOGY-REPORT
FORECAST: Meteorology expected: We expect that the tropopause will be relatively high over the CART site. Cirrus should be present sporadically as bands of moisture move through. There may be mid-lower level clouds also present over the CART site. There may be wave clouds over New Mexico.
OBSERVATIONS: Cirrus clouds were present over the CART site. However, we not able to make persistent contrails, and did not observe many contrails from other aircraft. Middle level clouds moved away during the day leaving some low level fair weather cumulus and a high level thin cirrus toward the end of the flight.

INSTRUMENT STATUS
All of the instruments are functional, except the Lawson probe. We will fly the 2DC-probe, the cloud scope, the VIPS and the the MASP on the pylons.

  • BALLENTHIN: Instrument apparently failed due to a vacuum leak.
  • BAUMGARDNER: Worked fine.
  • BRUNE: Worked fine.
  • CHAN: Worked fine.
  • COGGIOLA: Problem with CCN/IN counter.
  • COOPER: Worked fine.
  • DADS: Worked fine.
  • FERRY: Worked fine.
  • GARY: Worked fine.
  • GERBER: Worked fine.
  • HAGEN: Worked fine.
  • HALLET: Worked fine.
  • HEYMSFIELD: Worked fine, but VIPs failed.
  • HUDSON: Worked fine.
  • LAWSON: not available
  • RODGERS: Worked fine.
  • SACHSE: Worked fine.
  • TALBOT: Worked fine.
  • TWOHY: Worked fine.
  • UTHE: Worked fine.
  • VALERO: Worked fine.
  • WEINHEIMER: Worked fine.

 

Mission Highlights

 

  • T-39 contrail particles were too small (less than a few microns) to be seen on the cloud scope (Hallett)
  • possible regions of new particle formations (Hudson, Rodgers)

 

Mission Objective

T-39 Flight 09

  • To conduct sampling of the DC-8 emissions and provide contrails for the DC-8 to sample.

 

Flight Log

TAKEOFF/LANDING:
The T-39 departed SLN at 1607UTC and returned at 1830UTC

FLIGHT REPORT:
The T-39 trailed the DC-8 and sampled its emissions at close distance enroute to the CART site. At 1642, the T-39 took the lead and flew a race track course around the CART site as the DC-8 sampled in trail.

METEOROLOGY-REPORT:

INSTRUMENT STATUS:

  • CIMS - mass spec - WORKED
  • MS - Met/Nav system - WORKED (No GPS)
  • AMS - Air Motion Sensor - WORKED
  • NDIR - CO2 - WORKED
  • 3760 - fine CN - WORKED
  • 3025 - ultra fine CN - WORKED
  • FSSP - 0.3-20um aerosols - Software problem
  • PCASP - 0.1-3um aerosols - WORKED

 

Highlights

 

  • Obtained the first near-field observations of the HONO/HNO3 ratio.
  • Recorded interesting contrail video behind the DC-8.

96/04/27 CART site activity

 

Meteorology at the Central Facility

Weather Conditions from Site Operators Log
Altocumulus and thin cirrus mixture.

 

Visiting Instruments at Central Facilities

 

 

 

CART Instrument Operations at Central Facilities

Key: O = operational, X = down or degraded

  • RASS, 50 MHz, (hourly): O
  • RASS, 915 MHz, (hourly): O
  • BSRN: O
  • SIROS: O
  • SMOS, (24 hrs): O
  • SWATS (24 hrs): O
  • EBBR, (24 hrs): O
  • WSI, (every 10 min.) O
  • MWR, (24 hrs): O
  • IRT: X
  • MPL, (24 hrs): X
  • BLC, (24 hrs): O
  • AERI, (24 hrs): O
  • SORTI, (daytime, sunny): O
  • Raman Lidar (daytime): O
  • 60M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M IRT: O
  • 25M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • 25M Upwelling IR: O
  • 25M Upwelling Solar: O
  • 10M IRT: O
  • 10M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • Aerosol System: O
  • Radiosondes, (Every 3 hrs, from 1:30 UTC): O

 

CART Instrument Operations at Boundary Facilities

There are four staffed Boundary Facilities, each having Balloon Borne Sounding Systems (BBSS) and MicroWave Radiometers (MWR). During the IOP period, sondes are launched every three hours round the clock, starting at 5:30 GMT (12:30 CST). The sites are listed below. Times listed following a site indicate questionable data or failed sonde launches. Weather conditions are recorded in the Boundary Facilities Site Operator's Log.

  • Hillsboro, KS (BF-1): Okay
  • Vici, OK (BF-4): Okay
  • Morris, OK (BF-5): Okay
  • Purcell, OK (BF-6): Okay

 

CART Instrumentation at Extended Facilities

There are numerous unstaffed Extended Facilities. The specific instrumentation at the extended facilities varies from site to site, but generally includes a flux station (either an Energy Balance Bowen Ration (EBBR) system or an Eddy Correlation (ECOR) system), a Solar and InfraRed Observing System (SIROS), and a Standard Meteorology Observing Station (SMOS). For the locations of the Extended Facilities, and their suite of instrumentation, see the table and map of the Extended CART site. The comments below indicate specific data streams with identified problems.

  • Problem at Extended Facility:
  • E1: ECOR
  • E2: SIROS
  • E3: SIROS
  • E7: SIROS
  • E10: SIROS
  • E16: ECOR
  • E24: SIROS

 

Key Comments/Observations related to flights

This is likely a key observation day for the campaign. The CART site was visited by the ER-2, DC-8, and the T-39. In addition, the Egrett and Otter of the ARM UAV program also flew coordinated missions over the CART site. To top it off, both SUCCESS and UAV programs were able to coordinate missions during the NOAA-14 satellite overpass at 19:47.

1996-04-26

The T-39 and ER-2 flew separate missions. The T-39 sampled the emissions of commercial airliners (B757 and B727) at cruise altitudes of approximately 35kft. The ER-2 observed cirrus and contrails over Kansas and made coordinated measurements with the NOAA-14 satellite overpass at 1958 UTC.

Highlights


Flight Reports

ER-2 Flight: 96108

Date: April 26, 1996

Mission: Coordinated flight between ER-2 and NOAA-14 satellite.

Mission Objectives

Observe cirrus and contrails during overpass of the NOAA-14 satellite to assist in the development of satellite remote sensing techniques.

 

Flight Track

Flight Summary

Take-off time was 1730 UTC with landing at 2100 UTC. ER-2 flew NW to altitude and returned to vicinity of Salina. Lee wave mission was cancelled. ER-2 mission was adjusted accordingly. Pilot was to visually locate and fly over contrails. ER-2 flew into the solar principle plane during the NOAA-14 satellite overpass.

Highlights

Obtained coincident data with NOAA-14.

Instrument Status

  • MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS): Operated. Good data collected.
  • Cloud Aerosol Lidar System (CALS): Operated. Good data collected.
  • High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS): Operated. Good data collected.
  • Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer(MIR): Operated. Good data collected.
  • Tilt Scan CCD Camera (TSCC): Operated. Problems encountered.
  • Radiation Measuring System (RAMS): Operated. Good data collected.
  • RC-10 Camera: Operated (black and white visible film- 6 inch lens).

Additional Pilot Notes: During the 1831 to 1834 UTC leg the ER-2 overflew a fresh contrail (the commercial aircraft pilot could visually see the ER-2). Flew into the solar plane during the leg 38:00N 9610:W and 36:20N 98:10W (1956 and 2009 UTC). A good contrail was observed around 1847. During the leg between 1841 and 1855 UTC pilot observed 7 to 10 contrails. Also overflew a contrail on the 1952 to 1954 UTC leg. Contrails appeared to be below the cirrus.

 

Mission Objective

T-39 Flight 08

  • To conduct sampling of the emissions of commercial airliners at cruise altitudes.

 

Flight Log

TAKEOFF/LANDING:
The T-39 departed SLN at 1834UTC and returned at 2100UTC

FLIGHT REPORT:
The T-39 departed SLN and climbed to 35 kft and flew a loitering pattern beside a jetway emanating from Kansas City. ATC then vectored the aircraft to fly behind a B757 and later a B727.

METEOROLOGY-REPORT:

INSTRUMENT STATUS:

  • CIMS - mass spec - Electronic problems
  • MS - Met/Nav system - WORKED (lost GPS in flight)
  • AMS - Air Motion Sensor - WORKED
  • NDIR - CO2 - WORKED
  • 3760 - fine CN - WORKED
  • 3025 - ultra fine CN - WORKED
  • FSSP - 0.3-20um aerosols - Software problem
  • PCASP - 0.1-3um aerosols - WORKED

 

Highlights

 

  • Obtained aerosol emission indices for B757 and B727 aircraft

 


96/04/26 CART site activity

 

Meteorology at the Central Facility

Weather Conditions from Site Operators Log

 

Visiting Instruments at Central Facilities

 

 

 

CART Instrument Operations at Central Facilities

Key: O = operational, X = down or degraded

  • RASS, 50 MHz, (hourly): X
  • RASS, 915 MHz, (hourly): O
  • BSRN: X
  • SIROS: X
  • SMOS, (24 hrs): O
  • SWATS (24 hrs): O
  • EBBR, (24 hrs): O
  • WSI, (every 10 min.) X
  • MWR, (24 hrs): O
  • IRT: X
  • MPL, (24 hrs): X
  • BLC, (24 hrs): O
  • AERI, (24 hrs): O
  • SORTI, (daytime, sunny): O
  • Raman Lidar (daytime): X
  • 60M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M IRT: O
  • 25M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • 25M Upwelling IR: O
  • 25M Upwelling Solar: O
  • 10M IRT: O
  • 10M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • Aerosol System: X
  • Radiosondes, (Every 3 hrs, from 1:30 UTC): O

 

CART Instrument Operations at Boundary Facilities

There are four staffed Boundary Facilities, each having Balloon Borne Sounding Systems (BBSS) and MicroWave Radiometers (MWR). During the IOP period, sondes are launched every three hours round the clock, starting at 5:30 GMT (12:30 CST). The sites are listed below. Times listed following a site indicate questionable data or failed sonde launches. Weather conditions are recorded in the Boundary Facilities Site Operator's Log.

  • Hillsboro, KS (BF-1): Okay
  • Vici, OK (BF-4): Okay
  • Morris, OK (BF-5): Okay
  • Purcell, OK (BF-6): Okay

 

CART Instrumentation at Extended Facilities

There are numerous unstaffed Extended Facilities. The specific instrumentation at the extended facilities varies from site to site, but generally includes a flux station (either an Energy Balance Bowen Ration (EBBR) system or an Eddy Correlation (ECOR) system), a Solar and InfraRed Observing System (SIROS), and a Standard Meteorology Observing Station (SMOS). For the locations of the Extended Facilities, and their suite of instrumentation, see the table and map of the Extended CART site. The comments below indicate specific data streams with identified problems.

  • Problem at Extended Facility:
  • E1: ECOR
  • E2: SIROS
  • E3: SIROS
  • E7: SIROS
  • E10: SIROS
  • E16: ECOR

 

Key Comments/Observations related to flights

Good cirrus and contrails, but scattered low cumulus made ground-based remote sensing intermittent.

 

1996-04-25

96/04/25 CART site activity

Meteorology at the Central Facility

Weather Conditions from Site Operators Log

Visiting Instruments at Central Facilities

 

 

 

CART Instrument Operations at Central Facilities

Key: O = operational, X = down or degraded

  • RASS, 50 MHz, (hourly): X
  • RASS, 915 MHz, (hourly): O
  • BSRN: O
  • SIROS: O
  • SMOS, (24 hrs): O
  • SWATS (24 hrs): O
  • EBBR, (24 hrs): O
  • WSI, (every 10 min.) X
  • MWR, (24 hrs): O
  • IRT: X
  • MPL, (24 hrs): X
  • BLC, (24 hrs): O
  • AERI, (24 hrs): O
  • SORTI, (daytime, sunny): O
  • Raman Lidar (daytime): X
  • 60M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M IRT: O
  • 25M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • 25M Upwelling IR: O
  • 25M Upwelling Solar: O
  • 10M IRT: O
  • 10M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • Aerosol System: X
  • Radiosondes, (Every 3 hrs, from 1:30 UTC): O

 

CART Instrument Operations at Boundary Facilities

There are four staffed Boundary Facilities, each having Balloon Borne Sounding Systems (BBSS) and MicroWave Radiometers (MWR). During the IOP period, sondes are launched every three hours round the clock, starting at 5:30 GMT (12:30 CST). The sites are listed below. Times listed following a site indicate questionable data or failed sonde launches. Weather conditions are recorded in the Boundary Facilities Site Operator's Log.

  • Hillsboro, KS (BF-1): Okay
  • Vici, OK (BF-4): Okay
  • Morris, OK (BF-5): Okay
  • Purcell, OK (BF-6): Okay

 

CART Instrumentation at Extended Facilities

There are numerous unstaffed Extended Facilities. The specific instrumentation at the extended facilities varies from site to site, but generally includes a flux station (either an Energy Balance Bowen Ration (EBBR) system or an Eddy Correlation (ECOR) system), a Solar and InfraRed Observing System (SIROS), and a Standard Meteorology Observing Station (SMOS). For the locations of the Extended Facilities, and their suite of instrumentation, see the table and map of the Extended CART site. The comments below indicate specific data streams with identified problems.

  • Problem at Extended Facility:
  • E1: ECOR
  • E2: SIROS
  • E3: SIROS
  • E7: SIROS
  • E10: SIROS
  • E12: SIROS, EBBR
  • E16: ECOR
  •  

 

Key Comments/Observations related to flights

1996-04-24

The DC-8 and T-39 flew a coordinated mission over the CART site to profile cirrus clouds and for the T-39 to do near-field sampling of the DC-8 exhaust plume. Cirrus cells were observed the entire flight. While the DC-8 flew up and down wind tracks over the CART site, at different altitudes, the T-39 sampled its exhaust. Cirrus profiling was accomplished by the DC-8 by flying a racetrack pattern, in the up and down wind direction, while ascending, and then descending in slow spirals.

Highlights

Flight Reports

 

Mission Summary

DC-8 SUCCESS flight #208 [960208] (scientists: Brian Toon and Eric Jensen)

SUMMARY: The basic flight went very well. All of the instruments are functioning, with small problems left to be worked out.
This was an excellent cirrus sampling flight. Cirrus clouds were sampled at a very cold tropopause and appear to be very interesting. The T-39 also got good particle measurements in the DC-8 exhaust/contrails.

Mission Objective

 

  • profile cirrus clouds over the CART site
  • generate and sample persistent contrails
  • sample the DC-8 exhaust/contrails with the T-39

 

Flight Track

 

Flight Log

OPERATIONS
FLIGHT PLAN:
We will initially fly to a point 45 mi. downwind of the CART site (the wind is forecast at 300 deg., 50 knots). We will then fly a 15 min. leg upwind over the CART site at 20 K'. Then we will fly a climbing leg (not necessarily directly aligned with the previous leg) to the downwind point at 24 K'. Next, we will fly a level upwind leg at 24 K', then a climbing leg to 30 K', then a level leg at 30 K', then a climbing leg to 37 K', then a level leg at 37 K'. At the end of the upwind leg at 37 K', we will turn around, drop about a hundred feet, and attempt to visually pick up and fly into our contrail. Then we will fly another level leg upwind at 37 K' (hopefully in our contrail). Once we are slightly upwind of the CART site, we will fly 3 Lagrangian circles and spiral down over the CART site. We should have time to repeat the entire pattern. The T-39 will follow us as far as possible: either until they run short of gas or until the clouds are too thick for coordinated flying. The ER-2 is grounded due to high winds.

TAKEOFF/LANDING
The DC-8 left Salina at 16.30 UTC (11.30 am local time) and returned to Salina around 23.45 UTC

FLIGHT REPORT
The DC-8 climbed to 30 K' and transited to a point about 50 miles downwind of the CART site, with the T-39 sampling its exhaust. A 15 min. leg upwind over the CART site was flown at 30 K'. Then legs at 33 and 37 K' were flown. At 37 K', we attempted a fly back up to our contrail, and three circles were flown to intersect our contrail. Finally, we spiraled down to 30 K' over the CART site.
The along-wind, ascending legs pattern was then repeated with legs at 29, 33, 37, 39, and 41 K'. The legs at 39 and 41 K' were repeated to sample our own contrails. After these legs, we flew three circles, sampling our own exhaust/contrails. Finally, we spiraled down over the CART site.

METEOROLOGY-REPORT
FORECAST: Cirrus clouds over the CART site are forecast throughout the day, getting thicker with time. A front is moving in, and the tropopause should be lifting. This condition should be ideal for persistent contrails.
OBSERVATIONS: Patchy cirrus were observed during the first few legs of the first pattern. During the end of the first pattern and the beginning of the second, the CART site region was in a hole in the cirrus. Subsequently, deep cirrus moved in, with tops sometimes higher than 41 K'. The legs at 41 K' were in very cold cirrus (T = -68 C). Contrails generally did not persist more than a few minutes. Observation of contrails behind the DC-8 indicated that they typically dissipated just after the vortices broke up. Ground observers indicated that we only conned on the first of our three final Lagrangian circles.

INSTRUMENT STATUS
All instruments are functioning.

  • BALLENTHIN: Worked fine
  • BAUMGARDNER: Worked fine
  • BRUNE: Worked fine
  • CHAN: Worked fine
  • COGGIOLA: Worked fine
  • COOPER: Problem with IN instrument. Unknown status
  • DADS: Worked fine
  • FERRY: Worked fine
  • GARY: Worked fine
  • GERBER: Worked fine
  • HAGEN: Worked fine
  • HALLET: Cloudscope worked fine. Replicator had plumbing problem.
  • HEYMSFIELD: Worked fine
  • HUDSON: Worked fine
  • LAWSON: Worked fine
  • RODGERS: Some air leaks in system during flight.
  • SACHSE: Worked fine
  • TALBOT: Worked fine
  • TWOHY: Worked fine
  • UTHE: Worked fine
  • VALERO: Worked fine
  • WEINHEIMER: Worked fine

 

Mission Highlights

 

  • Aerosols and cirrus particles were highly volatile on this flight
  • At -67 C, ice crystals appeared to leave a solution residue on Hallet's cloudscope.
  • Relatively large amounts of particulate NOy were also apparent during the cold cirrus penetrations at 41 K'.

 

Mission Objective

T-39 Flight 07

  • To conduct near field sampling of the DC-8 with and without contrail formation.

 

Flight Log

TAKEOFF/LANDING:
The T-39 departed SLN at 1633UTC and returned at 1900UTC

FLIGHT REPORT:
The T-39 accomplished a rendezvous with the DC-8 approximately 5 min. after takeoff. The aircraft then performed near-field sampling of the lead aircraft's exhaust plume over the ensuing 2 hrs of flight time. Observations were obtained at 24, 30, 35 and 37 kft during constant altitude runs over the CART site.

METEOROLOGY-REPORT:

INSTRUMENT STATUS:

  • CIMS - mass spec - WORKED
  • MS - Met/Nav system - WORKED
  • AMS - Air Motion Sensor - WORKED
  • NDIR - CO2 - WORKED
  • 3760 - fine CN - WORKED
  • 3025 - ultra fine CN - WORKED
  • FSSP - 0.3-20um aerosols - NO DATA
  • PCASP - 0.1-3um aerosols - NO DATA

 

Highlights

 

  • Recorded over 100 DC-8 plume crossings at air temperatures ranging from 0 to -45C.
  • Observed a reduction in volatile particle concentration within contrail producing wake/plumes.
  • Enjoyed 90 degree roll in DC-8 wake.

96/04/24 CART site activity

 

Meteorology at the Central Facility

Weather Conditions from Site Operators Log

 

Visiting Instruments at Central Facilities

 

 

 

CART Instrument Operations at Central Facilities

Key: O = operational, X = down or degraded

  • RASS, 50 MHz, (hourly): X
  • RASS, 915 MHz, (hourly): O
  • BSRN: O
  • SIROS: O
  • SMOS, (24 hrs): O
  • SWATS (24 hrs): O
  • EBBR, (24 hrs): O
  • WSI, (every 10 min.) X
  • MWR, (24 hrs): O
  • IRT: X
  • MPL, (24 hrs): X
  • BLC, (24 hrs): O
  • AERI, (24 hrs): O
  • SORTI, (daytime, sunny): O
  • Raman Lidar (daytime): X
  • 60M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M IRT: O
  • 25M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • 25M Upwelling IR: O
  • 25M Upwelling Solar: O
  • 10M IRT: O
  • 10M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • Aerosol System: O
  • Radiosondes, (Every 3 hrs, from 1:30 UTC): O

 

CART Instrument Operations at Boundary Facilities

There are four staffed Boundary Facilities, each having Balloon Borne Sounding Systems (BBSS) and MicroWave Radiometers (MWR). During the IOP period, sondes are launched every three hours round the clock, starting at 5:30 GMT (12:30 CST). The sites are listed below. Times listed following a site indicate questionable data or failed sonde launches. Weather conditions are recorded in the Boundary Facilities Site Operator's Log.

  • Hillsboro, KS (BF-1): Okay
  • Vici, OK (BF-4): Okay
  • Morris, OK (BF-5): Okay
  • Purcell, OK (BF-6): Okay

 

CART Instrumentation at Extended Facilities

There are numerous unstaffed Extended Facilities. The specific instrumentation at the extended facilities varies from site to site, but generally includes a flux station (either an Energy Balance Bowen Ration (EBBR) system or an Eddy Correlation (ECOR) system), a Solar and InfraRed Observing System (SIROS), and a Standard Meteorology Observing Station (SMOS). For the locations of the Extended Facilities, and their suite of instrumentation, see the table and map of the Extended CART site. The comments below indicate specific data streams with identified problems.

  • Problem at Extended Facility:
  • E1: ECOR
  • E2: SIROS
  • E3: SIROS
  • E7: SIROS
  • E10: SIROS
  • E12: SIROS
  • E16: ECOR
  • E22: SIROS
  • E24: SMOS,SIROS

 

Key Comments/Observations related to flights

Variable thin to thick cirrus fibratus, generally tow layers from 7.5 km to 14 km. The DC-8 generally created persistent contrails only in connection with existing contrails.

CART-site observations (04/24):

Very windy (SW-direction) and dusty (blown up soil)
Cirrus clouds mainly above 10km altitude
Cirrus about 2 km thick, occasional concective cells without a bottom, then less humid sections, only a few halos events were sighted
Winds at cloud level 300/50kn turning northerly with altitude
No mid-level and no low-level clouds

DC-8 overpasses over the CART site (times in UTC):
17.17 SE-NW overpass, 30Kft
17.38 NW-SW overpass DC-8 laying contrail, sampled by T-39, 26Kft, sampling at the bottom of a convective cell (tops at 14km!)
17.48 thick cell 8-14km direct over the site (lidar)
18.05 another aircaft to north lays a (in clouds only) contrail
18.08 another aircraft passing to the south (picture of 4min con)
18.12 weak halo, lot of uncinus structure to the south
18.22 SE-NW overpass, contrail in cloud 10min later (no T-39)
18.38 NW-SE overpass, non-persistent contrail (no T-39)
18.58 SE-NW overpass, non-persistent contrail
19.15 dog-fight of two trainers over the lidar
19.19 NW-SE overpass, picture sequence of growing contrail,
contrail moved faster than the cirrus below (wind shear!)
19.40 cirrus clearing out, replaced by a dryer air-field
19.59 SE-NW overpass, non-persistent cirrus, longer lasting near cirrus fields only (easily identified by the bubbly structure and an often brighter appearance
for 20 minutes: looping just W of the CART site at different altitudes: from 20.07 on no visible contrails
20.25 leaving the CART site to SE, no contrails, visually lost
20.45 SE-NW overpass no contrail
21.07 NW-SE overpass
21.30 SE-NW overpass, making contrails, persistent near clouds
21.52 NW-SE overpass, passing upwind-leg contrail to the north
22.10 notice DC-8 laying contrail over the dryer patch downwind about 50 miles out
22.17 SE-NW overpass, non-persistent contrail, weaving off line, in thicker cirrus deck to the north and soon lost
22.37 NW-SE overpass, in heavy cirrus, hardly visible brightening
22.50 dark line above the horizon to the east: aerosol layer?
23.10 SE-NW overpass north of CART, cloud cover is dense and the overpass as well as the spirals remained undetected

1996-04-23

The ER-2 overflew mountain wave clouds and contrails in and out of the principle plane of the sun. Measurements were coordinated with a NOAA-14 satellite overpass at 2032 UTC.

Highlights


Flight Reports

ER-2 Flight: 96107

Date: April 23, 1996

Mission: Remote sensing of lee wave clouds.

Mission Objectives

Observe wave clouds over the front range and contrails during overpass of the NOAA-14 satellite.

 

Flight Track

Flight Summary

Take-off time was 1730 UTC and landing 2130 UTC. ER-2 flew to approximately 41:22N 106:19W and arrived at approximately 1839 UTC. Mission was to overfly mountain wave clouds and contrails in and out of the principal plane of the sun. Pilot was to visually locate the clouds. Coorindate flight track with ground track of the NOAA-14 satellite between 2031 and 2033 UTC. Track of satellite was approximately 40:36:20N 107:18:00W; 41:19.5N 107:34.8N; 41:59:51 107:48:00W; 42:39:09 108:00:00.

Denver did not give clearance to turn the lidar on until 1827 UTC.

Highlights

Flew parallel to NOAA-14 track while south of Denver.

Instrument Status

  • MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS): Operated. Good data collected.
  • Cloud Aerosol Lidar System (CALS): Operated. Good data collected.
  • High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS): Operated. Good data collected in bands 1 and 2. Doubled dwell time of nadir view between calibration cylces.
  • Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer(MIR): Operated. Good data collected.
  • Tilt Scan CCD Camera (TSCC): Operated. Images collected.
  • Radiation Measuring System (RAMS): Operated. Good data collected.
  • RC-10 Camera: Operated (black and white visible film- 6 inch lens).

Additional Pilot Notes: ER-2 flew over a long cirrus cloud that extended for about 100 mi. downwind of near Laramie. This cirrus appeared to be rolling and turbulent. Commercial aircraft reported wave clouds. Could visually see roll clouds out side cockpit window, but could not see them when over the clouds due to cirrus above of the wave clouds. No persistent contrails, ER-2 overflew some non persistent contrails. Flew south of Denver to get contrails and roll clouds. Flew satellite overpass while south of Denver.


96/04/23 CART site activity

 

Meteorology at the Central Facility

Weather Conditions from Site Operators Log

 

Visiting Instruments at Central Facilities

 

 

 

CART Instrument Operations at Central Facilities

Key: O = operational, X = down or degraded

  • RASS, 50 MHz, (hourly): X
  • RASS, 915 MHz, (hourly): O
  • BSRN: O
  • SIROS: O
  • SMOS, (24 hrs): O
  • SWATS (24 hrs): O
  • EBBR, (24 hrs): O
  • WSI, (every 10 min.) X
  • MWR, (24 hrs): O
  • IRT: X
  • MPL, (24 hrs): X
  • BLC, (24 hrs): O
  • AERI, (24 hrs): O
  • SORTI, (daytime, sunny): O
  • Raman Lidar (daytime): X
  • 60M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M Temperature and Humidity: O
  • 25M IRT: O
  • 25M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • 25M Upwelling IR: O
  • 25M Upwelling Solar: O
  • 10M IRT: O
  • 10M MultiFilter Radiometer: O
  • Aerosol System: O
  • Radiosondes, (Every 3 hrs, from 1:30 UTC): O

 

CART Instrument Operations at Boundary Facilities

There are four staffed Boundary Facilities, each having Balloon Borne Sounding Systems (BBSS) and MicroWave Radiometers (MWR). During the IOP period, sondes are launched every three hours round the clock, starting at 5:30 GMT (12:30 CST). The sites are listed below. Times listed following a site indicate questionable data or failed sonde launches. Weather conditions are recorded in the Boundary Facilities Site Operator's Log.

  • Hillsboro, KS (BF-1): Okay
  • Vici, OK (BF-4): Okay
  • Morris, OK (BF-5): Okay
  • Purcell, OK (BF-6): Okay

 

CART Instrumentation at Extended Facilities

There are numerous unstaffed Extended Facilities. The specific instrumentation at the extended facilities varies from site to site, but generally includes a flux station (either an Energy Balance Bowen Ration (EBBR) system or an Eddy Correlation (ECOR) system), a Solar and InfraRed Observing System (SIROS), and a Standard Meteorology Observing Station (SMOS). For the locations of the Extended Facilities, and their suite of instrumentation, see the table and map of the Extended CART site. The comments below indicate specific data streams with identified problems.

  • Problem at Extended Facility:
  • E1: ECOR
  • E2: SIROS
  • E3: SIROS
  • E7: SIROS
  • E12: SIROS
  • E15: SMOS, EBBR, SIROS
  • E16: SIROS, ECOR
  • E22: SIROS
  • E26: EBBR

 

Key Comments/Observations related to flights

Excellent cirrus and persistent contrails from commercial flights. Unfortunately, no flights over CART.

 


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