Polarized bidirectional reflectance of optically thick sparse particulate...

Mishchenko, M., J. M. Dlugach, J. Chowdhary, and N. T. Zakharova (2015), Polarized bidirectional reflectance of optically thick sparse particulate layers: An efficient numerically exact radiative-transfer solution, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 156, 97-108, doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2015.02.003.

We describe a simple yet efficient numerical algorithm for computing polarized bidirectional reflectance of an optically thick (semi-infinite), macroscopically flat layer composed of statistically isotropic and mirror symmetric random particles. The spatial distribution of the particles is assumed to be sparse, random, and statistically uniform. The 4  4 Stokes reflection matrix is calculated by iterating the Ambartsumian’s vector nonlinear integral equation. The result is a numerically exact solution of the vector radiative transfer equation and as such fully satisfies the energy conservation law and the fundamental reciprocity relation. Since this technique bypasses the computation of the internal radiation field, it is very fast and highly accurate. The FORTRAN implementation of the

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Radiation Science Program (RSP)