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The 2005 eruption of Kliuchevskoi volcano: Chronology and processes derived...

Rose, S. R., and M. Ramsey (2009), The 2005 eruption of Kliuchevskoi volcano: Chronology and processes derived from ASTER spaceborne and field-based data, J. Volc. Geotherm. Res., 184, 367-380, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.05.001.

Kliuchevskoi volcano, located on the Kamchatka peninsula of eastern Russia, is one of the largest and most active volcanoes in the world. Its location and diversity of eruption styles make satellite-based monitoring and characterization of its eruptive activity essential. In 2005, the Kamchatka Volcano Emergency Response Team (KVERT) first reported that seismic activity of Kliuchevskoi increased above background levels on 12 January (Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) Report, 2005. Kliuchevskoi Volcano, 14 January through 13 May 2005. By 15 January Kliuchevskoi entered an explosive–effusive phase, which lasted for five months and produced basaltic lava flows, lahar deposits, and phreatic explosions along its northwestern flank. We present a comparison between field observations and multispectral satellite image data acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument in order to characterize the eruptive behavior. The ASTER instrument was targeted in an automated urgent request mode throughout the eruption timeline in order to collect data at the highest observation frequency possible. Brightness temperatures were calculated in all three ASTER wavelength regions during lava flow emplacement. The maximum lava flow brightness temperatures, calculated from the 15 m/pixel visible near infrared (VNIR) data, were in excess of 800 °C. The shortwave infrared (SWIR) data were radiometrically and geometrically corrected, normalized to the same gain settings, and used to estimate an eruptive volume of 2.35×10−2 km3 at the summit. These data were also used to better constrain errors arising in the thermal infrared (TIR) data due to sub-pixel thermal heterogeneities. Based on all the ASTER data, the eruption was separated into three phases: an initial explosive phase (20 January-31 January), an explosive–effusive phase (1 February–8 March), and a subsequent cooling phase. Decorrelation stretch (DCS) images of the TIR data also suggested the presence of silicate ash, SO2, and water vapor plumes that extended up to 300 km from the summit. The ASTER rapid-response program provided important multispectral, moderate spatial resolution information that was used to detect and monitor the eruptive activity of this remote volcano which can be applied to other eruptions worldwide.

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