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CAMP2Ex 10/05/17 Mission Daily Schedule

October 5th, 2017
CAMP2Ex Planning/Management Meeting (Salt Lake City, Utah)

Start     Dur. (min)     Topic

Airborne Third Generation Precipitation Radar

The APR-3 is a three frequency (13, 35, and 94 GHz), Doppler, dual-polarization radar system. It has a downward looking antenna that performs cross track scans, covering a swath that is +/- 25 to each side of the aircraft path. Additional features include: simultaneous dual-frequency, matched beam operation, simultaneous measurement of both like- and cross-polarized signals at both frequencies, Doppler operation, and real-time pulse compression (calibrated reflectivity data can be produced for large areas in the field during flight, if necessary).

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P-3 Orion - WFF, NASA P-3, P-3
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High Spectral Resolution Lidar 2

The NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar 2 (HSRL) is used to characterize clouds and small particles in the atmosphere, called aerosols. From an airborne platform, the HSRL2 scientist team studies aerosol size, composition, distribution and movement.
 

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Advanced Vertical Atmospheric Profiling System

The Advanced Vertical Atmospheric Profiling System (AVAPS) is the dropsonde system for the Global Hawk. The Global Hawk dropsonde is a miniaturized version of standard RD-93 dropsondes based largely on recent MIST driftsondes deployed from balloons. The dropsonde provides vertical profiles of pressure, temperature, humidity, and winds. Data from these sondes are transmitted in near real-time via Iridium or Ku-band satellite to the ground-station, where additional processing will be performed for transmission of the data via the Global Telecommunications System (GTS) for research and operational use. The dispenser is located in zone 61 in the Global Hawk tail and is capable of releasing up to 88 sondes in a single flight.

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Research Scanning Polarimeter

In order to demonstrate the capabilities of polarimetry an instrument that can make either ground-based, or aircraft measurements, the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) has been developed by SpecTIR Corporation. This instrument has similar functional capabilities to the proposed EOSP satellite instrument. The picture above shows the assembled RSP instrument with its liquid nitrogen dewar on the left side and scanner assembly on the right. Currently data acquisition is performed on a laptop, which is shown here and gives an indication of the size of the instrument. The scientific requirements for the polarimetric measurements are satisfied by the RSP through its high measurement accuracy, the wide range of viewing angles measured and by sampling of the spectrum of reflected solar radiation over most of the radiatively significant range. The RSP instrument uses a polarization compensated scan mirror assembly to scan the fields of view of six boresighted, refractive telescopes through ±60° from the normal with respect to the instrument baseplate. The refractive telescopes are paired, with each pair making measurements in three spectral bands. One telescope in each pair makes simultaneous measurements of the linear polarization components of the intensity in orthogonal planes at 0° and 90° to the meridional plane of the instrument, while the other telescope simultaneously measures equivalent intensities in orthogonal planes at 45° and 135°. This approach ensures that the polarization signal is not contaminated by uncorrelated spatial or temporal scene intensity variations during the course of the polarization measurements, which could create false polarization. These measurements in each instantaneous field of view in a scan provide the simultaneous determination of the intensity, and the degree and azimuth of linear polarization in all nine spectral bands.

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Differential Aerosol Sizing and Hygroscopicity Spectrometer Probe

The DASH-SP will provide rapid measurements of aerosol sub-saturated hygroscopic growth factors aboard the NASA DC-8 during the SEAC4RS field campaign. DASH-SP measurements in the critically important southeast Asian region will afford a valuable opportunity to examine the relationship between aerosol composition and water-uptake properties in order to improve model parameterizations of aerosol-water interactions.

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DC-8 - AFRC, NASA P-3
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Langley Aerosol Research Group Experiment

Langley Aerosol Research Group Experiment (LARGE) measures ultrafine aerosol number density, total and non-volatile aerosol number density, dry aerosol size distribution from 0.01 to 10 mm, total and submicron aerosol absorption coefficients at 470, 535, and 670 nm, total and submicron aerosol scattering coefficients at 550 nm, and total scattering and hemispheric backscattering coefficients at 400, 550 and 700 nm. LARGE derives aerosol size statistics (mode, number and mass mean diameters, etc.), aerosol surface area and mass loading, aerosol extinction, single scattering albedo, and angstrom coefficients. In situ aerosol sensors include condensation nuclei counters, optical particle spectrometers, an aerodynamic particle sizer, multi-wavelength particle-soot absorption photometers, and integrating nephelometers.

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Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer

In early 2000, the Ames Atmospheric Radiation Group completed the design and development of an all new Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR). The SSFR is used to measure solar spectral irradiance at moderate resolution to determine the radiative effect of clouds, aerosols, and gases on climate, and also to infer the physical properties of aerosols and clouds. Additionally, the SSFR was used to acquire water vapor spectra using the Ames 25-meter base-path multiple-reflection absorption cell in a laboratory experiment. The Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer is a moderate resolution flux (irradiance) spectrometer with 8-12 nm spectral resolution, simultaneous zenith and nadir viewing. It has a radiometric accuracy of 3% and a precision of 0.5%. The instrument is calibrated before and after every experiment, using a NIST-traceable lamp. During field experiments, the stability of the calibration is monitored before and after each flight using portable field calibrators. Each SSFR consists of 2 light collectors, which are either fix-mounted to the aircraft fuselage, or on a stabilizing platform which counteracts the movements of the aircraft. Through fiber optic cables, the light collectors are connected to 2 identical pairs of spectrometers, which cover the wavelength range from (a) 350 nm-1000 nm (Zeiss grating spectrometer with Silicon linear diode array) and (b) 950 nm - 2150 nm (Zeiss grating spectrometer with InGaAs linear diode array). Each spectrometer pair covers about 95% of the incoming solar incident irradiance spectrum.

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Diode Laser Hygrometer

The DLH has been successfully flown during many previous field campaigns on several aircraft, most recently ATom, KORUS-AQ, and SEAC4RS (DC-8), POSIDON (WB-57), CARAFE (Sherpa), DISCOVER-AQ (P-3), and ATTREX (Global Hawk). This sensor measures water vapor (H2O(v)) via absorption by one of three strong, isolated lines in the (101) combination band near 1.4 μm and is comprised of a compact laser transceiver mounted to a DC-­8 window plate and a sheet of high grade retroflecting road sign material applied to an outboard DC‐8 engine housing to complete the optical path. Using differential absorption detection techniques, H2O(v) is sensed along the 28.5m external path negating any potential wall or inlet effects inherent in extractive sampling techniques. A laser power normalization scheme enables the sensor to accurately measure water vapor even when flying through clouds. An algorithm calculates H2O(v) concentration based on the differential absorption signal magnitude, ambient pressure, and temperature, and spectroscopic parameters that are measured in the laboratory. Preliminary water vapor mixing ratio and derived relative humidities are provided in real-time to investigators aboard the DC-8.

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BroadBand Radiometers

The Broadband Radiometers (BBR) consist of modified Kipp & Zonen CM-22 pyranometers (to measure solar irradiance) and CG-4 pyrgeometers (to measure IR irradiance) (see http://www.kippzonen.com/). The modifications to make these instruments more suitable for aircraft use include new instrument housings and amplification of the signal at the sensor. The instruments are run in current-loop mode to minimize the effects of noise in long signal cables. The housing is sealed and evacuated to prevent condensation or freezing inside the instrument. Each BBR has the following properties: Field-of-view: Hemispheric Temperature Range: -65C to +80C Estimated Accuracy: 3-5% Data Rate: 10Hz

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