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Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) observations of increases in Asian...

Massie, S., and S. Smith (2004), Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) observations of increases in Asian aerosol in winter from 1979 to 2000, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D18211, doi:10.1029/2004JD004620.

Emission inventories indicate that the largest increases in SO2 emissions have occurred in Asia during the last 20 years. By inference, the largest increases in aerosol, produced primarily by the conversion of SO2 to sulfate, should have occurred in Asia during the same time period. Decadal changes in regional aerosol optical depths are calculated by analyzing Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) vertical aerosol optical depths (converted to 550 nm) from 1979 to 2000 on a 1° by 1° global grid. The anthropogenic component of the TOMS aerosol record is maximized by examining the seasonal cycles of desert dust and boreal fire smoke and identifying the months of the year for which the desert dust and boreal fire smoke are least conspicuous. Gobi and Taklimakan desert dust in Asia is prevalent in the TOMS record during spring, and eastern Siberian smoke from boreal forest fires is prevalent during summer. Aerosol trends are calculated on a regional basis during winter (November–February) to maximize the anthropogenic component of the aerosol record. Large increases in aerosol optical depths between 1979 and 2000 are present over the China coastal plain and the Ganges River basin in India. Aerosol increased by 17% per decade during winter over the China coastal plain, while SO2 emissions over the same geographical region increased by 35% per decade.

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Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP)