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Evaluation of potential sources of a priori ozone profiles for TEMPO...

Johnson, M. S., X. Liu, P. Zoogman, J. Sullivan, M. Newchurch, S. Kuang, T. Leblanc, and T. McGee (2018), Evaluation of potential sources of a priori ozone profiles for TEMPO tropospheric ozone retrievals, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3457-3477, doi:10.5194/amt-11-3457-2018.

Potential sources of a priori ozone (O3 ) profiles for use in Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) satellite tropospheric O3 retrievals are evaluated with observations from multiple Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) systems in North America. An O3 profile climatology (tropopause-based O3 climatology (TB-Clim), currently proposed for use in the TEMPO O3 retrieval algorithm) derived from ozonesonde observations and O3 profiles from three separate models (operational Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Forward Processing (FP) product, reanalysis product from Modern-era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications version 2 (MERRA2), and the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM)) were: (1) evaluated with TOLNet measurements on various temporal scales (seasonally, daily, and hourly) and (2) implemented as a priori information in theoretical TEMPO tropospheric O3 retrievals in order to determine how each a priori impacts the accuracy of retrieved tropospheric (0–10 km) and lowermost tropospheric (LMT, 0–2 km) O3 columns. We found that all sources of a priori O3 profiles evaluated in this study generally reproduced the vertical structure of summeraveraged observations. However, larger differences between the a priori profiles and lidar observations were calculated when evaluating inter-daily and diurnal variability of tropospheric O3 . The TB-Clim O3 profile climatology was unable to replicate observed inter-daily and diurnal variability of O3 while model products, in particular GEOS-Chem simulations, displayed more skill in reproducing these features. Due to the ability of models, primarily the CTM used in this study, on average to capture the inter-daily and diurnal variability of tropospheric and LMT O3 columns, using a priori profiles from CTM simulations resulted in TEMPO retrievals with the best statistical comparison with lidar observations. Furthermore, important from an air quality perspective, when high LMT O3 values were observed, using CTM a priori profiles resulted in TEMPO LMT O3 retrievals with the least bias. The application of near-real-time (non-climatological) hourly and daily model predictions as the a priori profile in TEMPO O3 retrievals will be best suited when applying this data to study air quality or event-based processes as the standard retrieval algorithm will still need to use a climatology product. Follow-on studies to this work are currently being conducted to investigate the application of different CTMpredicted O3 climatology products in the standard TEMPO retrieval algorithm. Finally, similar methods to those used in this study can be easily applied by TEMPO data users to recalculate tropospheric O3 profiles provided from the standard retrieval using a different source of a priori.

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