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Liquid Water Cloud Measurements Using the Raman Lidar Technique: Current...

Sakai, T., D. Whiteman, F. Russo, D. D. Turner, I. Veselovskii, S. H. Melfi, T. Nagai, and Y. Mano (2013), Liquid Water Cloud Measurements Using the Raman Lidar Technique: Current Understanding and Future Research Needs, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 30, 1337-1353, doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-12-00099.1.

This paper describes recent work in the Raman lidar liquid water cloud measurement technique. The range-resolved spectral measurements at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center indicate that the Raman backscattering spectra measured in and below low clouds agree well with theoretical spectra for vapor and liquid water. The calibration coefficients of the liquid water measurement for the Raman lidar at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Southern Great Plains site of the U.S. Department of Energy were determined by comparison with the liquid water path (LWP) obtained with Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and the liquid water content (LWC) obtained with the millimeter wavelength cloud radar and water vapor radiometer (MMCR– WVR) together. These comparisons were used to estimate the Raman liquid water cross-sectional value. The results indicate a bias consistent with an effective liquid water Raman cross-sectional value that is 28%–46% lower than published, which may be explained by the fact that the difference in the detectors’ sensitivity has not been accounted for. The LWP of a thin altostratus cloud showed good qualitative agreement between lidar retrievals and AERI. However, the overall ensemble of comparisons of LWP showed considerable scatter, possibly because of the different fields of view of the instruments, the 350-m distance between the instruments, and the horizontal inhomogeneity of the clouds. The LWC profiles for a thick stratus cloud showed agreement between lidar retrievals and MMCR–WVR between the cloud base and 150 m above that where the optical depth was less than 3. Areas requiring further research in this technique are discussed.

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Atmospheric Dynamics and Precipitation Program (ADP)
Radiation Science Program (RSP)