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Challenges in constraining anthropogenic aerosol effects on cloud radiative...

Ghan, S., M. Wang, S. Zhang, S. Ferrachat, A. Gettelman, J. Griesfeller, Z. Kipling, U. Lohmann, H. Morrison, D. Neubauer, D. G. Partridge, P. Stier, T. Takemura, H. Wang, and K. Zhang (2016), Challenges in constraining anthropogenic aerosol effects on cloud radiative forcing using present-day spatiotemporal variability, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 113, 5804-5811, doi:10.1073/pnas.1514036113.

A large number of processes are involved in the chain from emissions of aerosol precursor gases and primary particles to impacts on cloud radiative forcing. Those processes are manifest “clean-sky” shortwave cloud radiative forcing, i.e., the shortwave cloud radiative forcing calculated as a diagnostic with aerosol optical depth set to zero (1). Note that this formalism allows

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