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Meyer, J. L. Carr, M. J. Garay, K. E. Christian; A. Bennedetti, A. M. Ring, A....

Yorks, J., J. Wang, M. J. McGill, M. Follette-Cook, E. P. Nowottnick, J. S. Reid, P. R. Colarco, J. Zhang, O. Kalashnikova, H. Yu, F. Marenco, J. A. Santanello, T. M. Weckwerth, Z. Li, J. R. Campbell, P. Yang, M. Diao, V. Noel, K. G. Meyer, J. L. Carr, M. Garay, K. Christian, A. Bennedetti, A. M. Ring, A. Crawford, M. J. Pavolonis, V. Aquila, J. Kim, and S. Kondragunta (2023), Meyer, J. L. Carr, M. J. Garay, K. E. Christian; A. Bennedetti, A. M. Ring, A. Crawford, M. J. Pavolonis, V. Aquila, J. Kim, S. Kondragunta, A SmallSat Concept to Resolve Diurnal and Vertical Variations of Aerosols and Clouds, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-21-0179.1.

A SmallSat mission concept is formulated here to carry out Time-varying Optical
Measurements of Clouds and Aerosol Transport (TOMCAT) from space while embracing low-cost
opportunities enabled by the revolution in Earth science observation technologies. TOMCAT’s
“around-the-clock” measurements will provide needed insights and strong synergy with existing
Earth observation satellites to 1) statistically resolve diurnal and vertical variation of cirrus cloud properties (key to Earth’s radiation budget), 2) determine the impacts of regional and seasonal planetary boundary layer (PBL) diurnal variation on surface air quality and low-level cloud distributions, and 3) characterize smoke and dust emission processes impacting their long-range transport on the subseasonal to seasonal time scales. Clouds, aerosol particles, and the PBL play critical roles in Earth’s climate system at multiple spatiotemporal scales. Yet their vertical variations as a function of local time are poorly measured from space. Active sensors for profiling the atmosphere typically utilize sun-synchronous low-Earth orbits (LEO) with rather limited temporal and spatial coverage, inhibiting the characterization of spatiotemporal variability. Pairing compact active
lidar and passive multiangle remote sensing technologies from an inclined LEO platform enables
measurements of the diurnal and vertical variability of aerosols, clouds, and aerosol-mixing-layer (or PBL) height in tropical-to-midlatitude regions where most of the world’s population resides. TOMCAT is conceived to bring potential societal benefits by delivering its data products in near–real time and offering on-demand hazard-monitoring capabilities to profile fire injection of smoke particles, the frontal lofting of dust particles, and the eruptive rise of volcanic plumes.

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