Synonyms: 
WB-57
WB57
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Multi-sample Aerosol Collection System

The Multiple Aerosol Collection System contains an impactor collector which permits the collection of particles on electron microscope grids for later chemical-constituent analysis. The collector consists of a two stages. In the first stage the pressure of the sample is reduced by a factor of two without loosing particles by impaction on walls. The second stage consists of a thin plate impactor which collects efficiently even at small Reynolds numbers. The system collects particles as small as 0.02 micron at WB-57 cruise altitudes. As many as 24 samples can be collected in a flight.

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Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectrometer

IRIS is an ultra sensive laser spectrometer for in situ detection of the isotopic composition of water vapor in the higher tropopause and the lower stratosphere. The isotope signals may be used to quantify troposphere-stratosphere exchange, and to study the water chemistry in the stratosphere. IRIS is based on the technique of optical-feedback cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy. It uses a room temperature infrared laser, needing no crygens. The instrument combines a low weight (< 50 kg) and volume (< 50 L) with a low power consumption (< 200 W), making it uniquely suitable for future deployment on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.

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Harvard Hydroxyl Experiment

OH is detected by direct laser induced fluorescence in the (0-1) band of the 2?-2? electronic transition. A pulsed dye-laser system produces frequency tunable laser light at 282 nm. An on-board frequency reference cell is used by a computer to lock the laser to the appropriate wavelength. Measurement of the signal is then made by tuning the laser on and off resonance with the OH transition.

Stratospheric air is channeled into the instrument using a double-ducted system that both maintains laminar flow through the detection region and slows the flow from free stream velocity (200 m/s) to 40 m/s. The laser light is beam-split and directed to two detection axes where it passes through the stratospheric air in multipass White cells.

Fluorescence from OH (centered at 309 nm) is detected orthogonal to both the flow and the laser propagation using a filtered PMT assembly. Optical stability is checked periodically by exchanging the 309 nm interference filter with a filter centered at 302 nm, where Raman scattering of N2 is observed.

HO2 is measured as OH after chemical titration with nitric oxide: HO2 + NO → OH + NO2. Variation of added NO density and flow velocity as well as the use of two detection axes aid in diagnosis of the kinetics of this titration. Measurements of ozone (by uv absorption) and water vapor (by photofragment fluorescence) are made as diagnostics of potential photochemical interference from the mechanism: O3 + hv (282 nm) → O(1D) + O2, followed by: O(1D) + H2O → OH + OH

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Diode Laser Hygrometer

The DLH has been successfully flown during many previous field campaigns on several aircraft, most recently ACTIVATE (Falcon); FIREX-AQ, ATom, KORUS-AQ, and SEAC4RS (DC-8); POSIDON (WB-57); CARAFE (Sherpa); CAMP2Ex and DISCOVER-AQ (P-3); and ATTREX (Global Hawk). This sensor measures water vapor (H2O(v)) via absorption by one of three strong, isolated spectral lines near 1.4 μm and is comprised of a compact laser transceiver and a sheet of high grade retroflecting road sign material to form the optical path. Optical sampling geometry is aircraft-dependent, as each DLH instrument is custom-built to conform to aircraft geometric constraints. Using differential absorption detection techniques, H2O(v) is sensed along the external path negating any potential wall or inlet effects inherent in extractive sampling techniques. A laser power normalization scheme enables the sensor to accurately measure water vapor even when flying through clouds. An algorithm calculates H2O(v) concentration based on the differential absorption signal magnitude, ambient pressure, and temperature, and spectroscopic parameters found in the literature and/or measured in the laboratory. Preliminary water vapor mixing ratio and derived relative humidities are provided in real-time to investigators.

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Cloud Physics Lidar

The Cloud Physics Lidar, or CPL, is a backscatter lidar designed to operate simultaneously at 3 wavelengths: 1064, 532, and 355 nm. The purpose of the CPL is to provide multi-wavelength measurements of cirrus, subvisual cirrus, and aerosols with high temporal and spatial resolution. Figure 1 shows the entire CPL package in flight configuration. The CPL utilizes state-of-the-art technology with a high repetition rate, low pulse energy laser and photon-counting detection. Vertical resolution of the CPL measurements is fixed at 30 m; horizontal resolution can vary but is typically about 200 m. The CPL fundamentally measures range-resolved profiles of volume 180-degree backscatter coefficients. From the fundamental measurement, various data products are derived, including: time-height crosssection images; cloud and aerosol layer boundaries; optical depth for clouds, aerosol layers, and planetary boundary layer (PBL); and extinction profiles. The CPL was designed to fly on the NASA ER-2 aircraft but is adaptable to other platforms. Because the ER-2 typically flies at about 65,000 feet (20 km), onboard instruments are above 94% of the earth’s atmosphere, allowing ER-2 instruments to function as spaceborne instrument simulators. The ER-2 provides a unique platform for atmospheric profiling, particularly for active remote sensing instruments such as lidar, because the spatial coverage attainable by the ER-2 permits studies of aerosol properties across wide regions. Lidar profiling from the ER-2 platform is especially valuable because the cloud height structure, up to the limit of signal attenuation, is unambiguously measured.

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Cloud Particle Imager

The CPI records high-resolution (2.3 micron pixel size) digital images of particles that pass through the sample volume at speeds up to 200 m/s. In older models, CCD camera flashes up to 75 frames per second (fps), potentially imaging more than 25 particles per frame. More recent camera upgrades capable of bringing frame rate to nearly 500 fps. Real time image processing crops particle images from the full frame, eliminating blank space and compressing data by >1000:1. CPI is designed for ummanned use, with AI parameters to optimize performance without supervision.

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Digital Camera System

DCS is a 16-megapixel color infrared digital camera system, providing high resolution imagery for mission tracking purposes Geo-referenced image products may be generated, when used in conjunction with a POS-AV system.

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Cloud Spectrometer and Impactor

The Cloud Spectrometer and Impactor (CSI) combines the counterflow virtual impactor with a new lightweight cloud droplet probe to allow for detailed studies of total condensed water (TCW), liquid and ice, in clouds. The CSI can measure TCW from ~ 1 mg/m3 to several g/m3 depending on the configuration; in addition particle sizes from 2 to 50 μm are resolved with the droplet probe. The instrumentation can be mounted externally on most aircraft.

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Counterflow Virtual Impactor

The NCAR counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) (Noone et al., 1988; Twohy et al., 1997) is an airborne instrument that can be used for studies of aerosol/cloud interactions, cloud physics, and climate. At the CVI inlet tip, cloud droplets or ice crystals larger than about 8 µm aerodynamic diameter are separated from the interstitial aerosol and impacted into dry nitrogen gas. This separation is possible via a counterflow stream of nitrogen out the CVI tip, which assures that only larger particles (cloud droplets or ice crystals) are sampled. Because droplets or crystals in a sampling volume of about 200 l/min are impacted into a sample stream of approximately 10 l/min, concentrations within the CVI are significantly enhanced. The water vapor and non-volatile residual nuclei remaining after droplet evaporation are sampled downstream of the inlet with selected instruments. These may include a Lyman-alpha or similar hygrometer, a condensation nucleus counter, an optical particle counter, filters for chemical analyses, or user instruments.

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Cloud Integrating Nephelometer

The CIN-100A is designed for aircraft mounting and measures the optical extinction coefficient and asymmetry parameter.

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