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Synonyms: 
WB-57
WB57
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Single Particle Soot Photometer (NOAA)

The SP2 is a laser-induced incandescence instrument primarily used for measuring the refractory BC  (rBC) mass content of individual accumulation-mode aerosol particles. It is able to provide this data product independently of the total particle morphology and mixing state, and thus delivers detailed information not only about BC loadings, but also size distributions, even in exceptionally clean air. The instrument can also provide the optical size of individual particles containing rBC, and identify the presence of materials associated with the BC fraction (i.e. identify the rBC’s mixing state). Since its introduction in 2003, the SP2 has been substantially improved, and now can be considered a highly competent instrument for assessing BC loadings and mixing state in situ.  NOAA deploys multiple SP2s with different designs: the first was built for the WB-57F research aircraft. Two others are rack-mounted units customized at NOAA; one of the rack mounted units can be humidified, and has been deployed with a paired dry rack-mounted SP2 as the "Humidified-Dual SP2" (HD-SP2). The rack mounted units are suitable for in-cabin operations.

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SPP-100

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Whole Air Sampler

The Whole Air Sampler (WAS) collects samples from airborne platforms for detailed analysis of a wide range of trace gases. The compounds that are typically measured from the WAS includes trace gases with sources from industrial midlatitude emissions, from biomass burning, and from the marine boundary layer, with certain compounds (e.g. organic nitrates) that have a unique source in the equatorial surface ocean. The use of a broad suite of tracers with different sources and lifetimes provides powerful diagnostic information on air mass history and chemical processing that currently is only available from measurements from whole air samples. Previous deployments of the whole air sampler have shown that the sampling and analytical procedures employed by our group are capable of accessing the wide range of mixing ratios at sufficient precision to be used for tracer studies. Thus, routine measurement of species, such as methyl iodide, at <= 0.1 x 10-12 mole fraction, or NMHC at levels of a few x 10-12 mole fraction are possible. In addition to the tracer aspects of the whole air sampler measurements, we measure a full suite of halocarbon species that provide information on the role of short-lived halocarbons in the tropical UT/LS region, on halogen budgets in the UT/LS region, and on continuing increasing temporal trends of HFCs (such as 134a), HCFCs (such as HCFC 141b), PFCs (such as C2F6), as well as declining levels of some of the major CFCs and halogenated solvents. The measurements of those species that are changing rapidly in the troposphere also give direct indications of the age and origin of air entering the stratosphere.

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Video Ice Particle Sampler

The VIPS is an electro-optical instrument used to collect and record a continuous sample of cloud particles down to 5 um. Particles are collected continuously on a looped belt coated with silicone oil. The portion of the belt exposed to the airstream is imaged by two very high resolution charged coupled device (CCD) shuttered video cameras with different resolutions. The resulting imagery is available for real-time, in-flight evaluation of cloud conditions and for post-flight habit classification and spectra analysis.

The VIPS system is composed of two parts: (1) an electro-optical collection and imaging unit mounted in a standard particle measurement system (PMS) can, and (2) data acquisition and recording components. Aperture width of the collection subassembly is adjustable for varying flight conditions. The CCD imaging cameras are coupled with inline, high detail video enhancers. Particle imagery is recorded continuously at 30 Hz on high-resolution Hi-8 VCRs. Images are also captured at 1 Hz, digitized in real-time and recorded on an Apple PowerPC.

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Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment

The TWiLiTE instrument is a compact, rugged direct detection scanning Doppler lidar designed to measure wind profiles in clear air from 18 km to the surface. TWiLiTE operates autonomously on NASA research aircraft (ER-2, DC-8, WB-57, Global Hawk). Initial engineering flight tests on the NASA ER-2 in 2009 demonstrated autonomous operation of all major systems. TWiLiTE will be reconfigured to fly on the NASA Global Hawk as part of the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel Venture Class Mission.

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Scanning Actinic Flux Spectroradiometers

The SAFS instruments determine wavelength dependent actinic flux from 280-420 nm. The actinic flux in combination with the absorption cross section and quantum yield molecular data will be used to calculate the photolysis frequencies of multiple photochemically important molecular processes, including O3, NO2, HONO, CH2O, H2O2, CH3OOH, HNO3, PAN, CH3NO3, CH3CH2NO3, and CH3COCH3.

The SAFS measurement is based on a 2p steradian hemisphere hemispherical quartz light collector, a double monochromator, and a low dark current photomultiplier. The monochromator employs dual 2400 G/mm gratings which produce a 1 nm FWHM spectral resolution and very low straylight. The instrument package on the aircraft includes two independent, but time synchronized (IRIG-B) spectroradiometer systems to measure the up- and down-welling fluxes in a 10 second scan time. Summing these produces the spherically integrated actinic flux.

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Scanning High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder

The Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS) is a scanning interferometer which measures emitted thermal radiation at high spectral resolution between 3.3 and 18 microns The measured emitted radiance is used to obtain temperature and water vapor profiles of the Earth's atmosphere in clear-sky conditions. S-HIS produces sounding data with 2 kilometer resolution (at nadir) across a 40 kilometer ground swath from a nominal altitude of 20 kilometers onboard a NASA ER-2 or Global Hawk.

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Particle Analysis By Laser Mass Spectrometry

The NOAA PALMS instrument measures single-particle aerosol composition using UV laser ablation to generate ions that are analyzed with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer.  The PALMS size range is approximately 150 to >3000 nm and encompasses most of the accumulation and coarse mode aerosol volume. Individual aerosol particles are classified into compositional classes.  The size-dependent composition data is combined with aerosol counting instruments from Aerosol Microphysical Properties (AMP), the Langley Aerosol Research Group Experiment (LARGE), and other groups to generate quantitative, composition-resolved aerosol concentrations.  Background tropospheric concentrations of climate-relevant aerosol including mineral dust, sea salt, and biomass burning particles are the primary foci for the ATom campaigns.  PALMS also provides a variety of compositional tracers to identify aerosol sources, probe mixing state, track particle aging, and investigate convective transport and cloud processing.

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Particle type number fractions: sulfate/organic/nitrate mixtures, biomass burning, EC, sea salt, mineral dust, meteoric, alkali salts, heavy fuel combustion, and other. Sampling times range from 1-5 mins.

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Number, surface area, volume, and mass concentrations of the above particle types. Total sulfate and organic mass concentrations. Relative and absolute abundance of various chemical markers and aerosol sub-components: methanesulfonic acid, sulfate acidity, organic oxidation level, iodine, bromine, organosulfates, pyridine, and other species.

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National Airborne Sounder Testbed - Interferometer

The National Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I) is a high spectral resolution (0.25 cm-1) and high spatial resolution (0.13 km linear resolution per km of aircraft flight altitude, at nadir) scanning (2.3 km ground cross-track swath width per km of aircraft flight altitude) passive infrared (IR) Michelson interferometer sounding system that was developed to be flown on high-altitude aircraft to provide experimental observations needed to finalize the specifications and to test proposed designs and data processing algorithms for the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) flying on the Suomi NPP (SNPP) and Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) platforms. Because the NAST-I infrared spectral radiance and temperature, humidity, trace species, cloud and surface property soundings have unprecedented spectral and high spatial resolution, respectively, the data can be used to support a variety of satellite sensor calibration / validation and atmospheric research programs. The NAST-I covers a spectral range from ~ 600-2900 cm-1 (3.5-16 microns) with 0.25 cm-1 spectral resolution, yielding more than 9000 spectral channels of radiance emission/absorption information. The NAST-I instrument has flown numerous science missions on the ER-2, WB-57, and Proteus aircraft, and the team has evaluated efforts needed to become operational on the DC-8. Most recently, NAST-I was part of the ER-2 science payload for the FIREX-AQ field campaign conducted during August, 2019 (https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/csl/projects/firex-aq/). Additional information can be obtained from Anna Noe (anna.m.noe@nasa.gov, 757-864-6466), Dr. Daniel Zhou (daniel.k.zhou@nasa.gov, 757-864-5663), or Dr. Allen Larar (Allen.M.Larar@nasa.gov, 757-864-5328).

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Anna Noe (Mgr)

Non-dispersed Infrared Airborne CO2 Detector

NIRAD consists of three systems: (1) CO2 detector, (2) power and data acquisition, and (3) gas-handling. All three systems have flown previously. The CO2 detector was first flown in 1999 as part of CORE+ instrument during RISO and ACCENT and again in 2004 during PUMA-A. There have been no changes to the detector, other than inspection and routine maintenance. The power and data acquisition system were new for PUMA-A, and are flown here without change, other than to software. The gas-handling system is the same as that flown in May 2004, except that it is now packaged into a single box that contains the detector and power/data system.

The detector is packaged in a vacuum housing to facilitate management of temperature and pressure. At power-up the housing is pumped down to ~300 hPa by one stage of a diaphragm pump and held at this pressure throughout the flight. Thus, at pressure altitudes < 300 hPa the pressure within the housing is above ambient. By design, if the pressure differential is significantly greater than about 5 psi, the O-ring seals leak. A redundant additional mechanical safety relief valve (set for ~15 psi or less) is placed on the housing.

Two 1.2 L epoxy-coated, fiber-wrapped aluminum bottles (DOT rated and certified) are filled to ~1600 psi before flight with zero air doped with CO2. These ‘standards’ are sampled repeatedly during flight to provide an accurate standard for reference to the NOAA/CMDL CO2 scale. Two-stage regulators provide a service pressure of ~25-30 psig throughout flight. The bottles and regulators are backed with safety relief valves.

The diaphragm pump is current-limited for a ‘soft start’ (that is, there is no electrical surge on startup, allowing for use of compact, highly efficient Vicor VI-100 DC/DC converters.

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