A model-based analysis of foliar NOx deposition

Delaria, E., and R. C. Cohen (2020), A model-based analysis of foliar NOx deposition, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2123-2141, doi:10.5194/acp-20-2123-2020.

Foliar deposition of NO2 removes a large fraction of the global soil-emitted NOx . Understanding the mechanisms of NOx foliar loss is important for constraining surface ozone, constraining NOx mixing ratios, and assessing the impacts of nitrogen inputs to ecosystems. We have constructed a 1-D multibox model with representations of chemistry and vertical transport to evaluate the impact of leaflevel processes on canopy-scale concentrations, lifetimes, and canopy fluxes of NOx . Our model is able to closely replicate canopy fluxes and above-canopy NOx daytime mixing ratios observed during two field campaigns, one in a western Sierra Nevada pine forest (BEARPEX-2009) and the other in a northern Michigan mixed hardwood forest (UMBS-2012). We present a conceptual argument for the importance of NO2 dry deposition and demonstrate that NO2 deposition can provide a mechanistic explanation for the canopy reduction of NOx . We show that foliar deposition can explain observations suggesting as much as ∼ 60 % of soil-emitted NOx is removed within forest canopies. Stomatal conductances greater than 0.1 cm s−1 result in modeled canopy reduction factors in the range of those used in global models, reconciling inferences of canopy NOx reduction with leaf-level deposition processes. We show that incorporating parameterizations for vapor pressure deficit and soil water potential has a substantial impact on predicted NO2 deposition in our model, with the percent of soil NOx removed within one canopy increasing by ∼ 15 % in wet conditions compared to dry conditions. NO2 foliar deposition was also found to have a significant impact on ozone and nitrogen budgets under both high- and low-NOx conditions.

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