Synonyms: 
NSF G-V
G-V NCAR
G-5 NCAR
G-5 NSF
G-V NSF

Closed-path Laser Hygrometer 2

The University of Colorado Closed-path Laser Hygrometer, version 2 (CLH2) is an infrared absorption instrument designed to measure so-called “total water”, the sum of water vapor and particulate water. It is a second-generation sensor that derives from the original CLH, which has been flown on the NASA DC-8 and WB-57F and the NSF/NCAR G-V and C-130. This version of the instrument uses a fiber-coupled tunable diode laser at 1.37 μm to measure by absorption the water vapor resulting from the evaporation of cloud particles. The spectrometer will be housed in a modified PMS canister and coupled to a heated forward-facing inlet. Sampling of particles is deliberately sub-isokinetic, which results in enhancements of particle mass relative to ambient by factors ranging between 30 and 70. Therefore, condensed water even in very thin clouds can be measured with high precision and accuracy.

Measurements: 
Aircraft: 
Gulfstream V - NSF
Point(s) of Contact: 

G-V Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer

The GV Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) measures the particle size distribution over the mobility diameter range of 3 to 500 nm (pressure-dependent). It consists of two components: an electrostatic classifier (EC) and a condensation particle counter (CPC). The EC samples aerosol-laden ambient air, places a well-defined charge distribution on the particles, and then selects a narrow range of particle “mobility diameter” (approx. equal to cross-sectional area-to-charge ratio) using a differential mobility analyzer (DMA). The selected diameter can be scanned by a time-varying high voltage applied to the DMA; following this particles are counted by the CPC. The total scan time and the number of counting intervals, the latter of which determines the number of diameter bins in the size distribution, are selected based on ambient particle concentrations and altitude. The raw data (particle counts over each counting interval as a function elapsed time during the linear diameter scan) is mathematically inverted during post-processing to obtain the particle size distribution.

Instrument Type: 
Aircraft: 
Gulfstream V - NSF
Point(s) of Contact: 

Water-Based Condensation Nucleus Counter

The primary condensation nucleus counter used on the NSF/NCAR G-V is a modified version of the TSI 3786 Ultra-Fine Water-Based Condensation Nucleus Counter, with modifications made by Aerosol Dynamics, Inc., and Quant. The modifications were primarily to lower the temperature in the region where droplets grow on condensation nuclei, which was necessary because the 60 C growth temperature of the standard 3786 is the boiling point when the pressure is about 200 mb, and the GV flies well above this altitude. Other changes were made to the flow control, flow rates, pumps, and water injection scheme to adapt to the large altitude range of the G-V. One substantial advantage of this instrument over other CN counters is that it does not depend on butanol as the operating fluid and so does not require handling of a flammable gas around the aircraft or flight with a flammable substance.

The threshold particle size detected by the WCN is about 5 nm, becoming larger at low pressure but remaining below the ultra-fine size range (<10 nm) at pressures as low as 150 mb. The instrument also is relatively insensitive to coincidence losses, continuing to perform with coincidence losses <10% up to concentrations around 105 cm-3. Tubing losses can be significant for small particles, so size-dependent and pressure-dependent corrections may be needed unless the lines can be kept very short (not more than a few m).

Instrument Type: 
Measurements: 
Aircraft: 
Gulfstream V - NSF
Point(s) of Contact: 

UHSAS instrument - SEAC4RS

Three-View Cloud Particle Imager

The Three-View Cloud Particle Imager (3V-CPI) measures the size, shape and concentration of water drops and ice particles in clouds. The probe is a combination of three imaging instruments. Two of them comprise a 2D-S (Two- Dimensional Stereo hydrometeor spectrometer), in which two high-resolution (about 9 mm resolution) 2D probes image particles as they pass through laser beams that are orthogonal to each other. If particles also lie in the intersection of the sensitive areas of the two beams, they are seen by both 2D probes. In that case, the third instrument, a Cloud Particle Imager (CPI), is triggered to take a high-resolution picture, via a briefly illuminated high-resolution imaging array. This image has a pixel size of about 2.3 µm and so provides very high resolution for determining shapes and habits of ice crystals. The probe is particularly suited to imaging such crystals, but also provides good detection of other hydrometeors including large cloud droplets, drizzle and small rain drops, and other precipitation particles.

Measurements: 
Aircraft: 
Gulfstream V - NSF
Point(s) of Contact: 

2DC Hydrometeor Imaging Probe

The 2DC probe records images of hydrometeors that pass through its sample volume, and so provides measurements of ice or water drop concentration, their size distribution, and their shapes. It obtains these images by recording the status (illuminated or shadowed) of a 64-element photodiode array as the shadow of the hydrometeor passes over the array. Probes with 25 µm and 10 µm resolution are available; at 25 µm, the 64-element array provides a sample of about 8 L per 100 m of flight. Images of individual particles are recorded, usually with no loss except at very high concentrations. Special records containing these images in digital form are recorded as needed, so they will be interspersed with the standard periodically sampled records. The 2DC probe was originally manufactured by Particle Measuring Systems, Inc., but the electronics have been replaced with high-speed circuitry matched to the flight speed of the G-V, data transmission has been changed to USB-2, the photodiode array was replaced with one having twice as many elements and supporting faster response, and other changes were made to the optics and electronics of the G-V 2DCs.

Because the depth of field reduces to less than the distance between the arms that define the sample aperture for particle sizes less than about 125 µm, and because diffraction makes the sizes of such small particles hard to determine, the probe has limited ability to measure concentrations at sizes less than about 100 µm, even though it has resolution smaller than this. The array size and optics limit the largest size that can be imaged fully to 1600 µm for the 25-µm-resolution probe. The probe also has been shown to measure falsely high concentrations as a result of shattering (Korolev et al., 2011), so new tips have been installed that reduce but do not eliminate the effects of shattering.

Instrument Type: 
Aircraft: 
Gulfstream V - NSF
Point(s) of Contact: 

Picarro G1301-c Methane/Carbon Dioxide Analyzer

The Picarro CO2/CH4 Flight Analyzer is a real time, trace gas monitor capable of measuring these gases with parts-per-billion (ppbv) sensitivity onboard aircraft with varying cabin pressure and environmental conditions. The analyzer is based on Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (WS-CRDS), a time-based measurement utilizing a near-infrared laser to measure a spectral signature of the molecule. Gas is circulated in an optical measurement cavity with an effective path length of up to 20 kilometers. A patented, high-precision wavelength monitor makes certain that only the spectral feature of interest is being monitored, greatly reducing the analyzer’s sensitivity to interfering gas species, and enabling ultra-trace gas concentration measurements even if there are other gases present. As a result, the analyzer maintains high linearity, precision, and accuracy over changing environmental conditions with minimal calibration required.

Instrument Type: 
Measurements: 
Aircraft: 
Gulfstream V - NSF
Point(s) of Contact: 

Trace Organic Gas Analyzer

TOGA measures volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Specific data will be obtained for radical precursors, tracers of anthropogenic and biogenic activities, tracers of urban and biomass combustion emissions, products of oxidative processing, precursors to aerosol formation, and compounds important for aerosol modification and transformation. TOGA measures a wide range of VOCs with high sensitivity (ppt or lower), frequency (2.0 min.), accuracy (15% or better), and precision (<3%). Over 50 species are routinely measured (see PDF for full table) throughout the full DC-8 altitude range. TOGA is contained in a standard DC-8 rack, weighs less than 200 kg and consumes ~1 kW of power. The major components of the instrument are the inlet, cryogenic preconcentrator, gas chromatograph, mass spectrometer detector, zero air/calibration system, and the control/data acquisition system. All processes and data acquisition are computer controlled.

Measurements: 
Aircraft: 
DC-8 - AFRC, Gulfstream V - NSF
Point(s) of Contact: 

Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer

The UHSAS is an optical-scattering, laser-based aerosol particle spectrometer for sizing particles in the 0.06 – 1 μm range. The instrument counts particles in up to 100 user-specified sizing bins, with a resolution as fine as 1 nm/bin. This high sensitivity makes the UHSAS ideal for aerosol research and filter testing.

A laser illuminates particles, which scatter light that is then collected by two pairs of Mangin optics. One pair of optics images onto a highly sensitive avalanche photodiode (APD) for detecting the smallest particles. The other pair images onto a low-gain PIN photodiode for detecting particles in the larger size range of the instrument. Each detector is amplified in a current-to-voltage stage that feeds into the analog electronics system. The amplification allows the system to detect particles as small as 60 nm.

Instrument Type: 
Aircraft: 
Global Hawk - AFRC, Gulfstream V - NSF
Point(s) of Contact: 

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