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and Regional Climate 1 1 1 1

Gettelman, A., H. Morrison, K. Thayer-Calder, and C. M. Zarzycki (2019), and Regional Climate 1 1 1 1, J. Adv. Modeling Earth Syst., doi:10.1029/2018MS001488.

Rimed hydrometeors (graupel or hail) are added to a stratiform cloud scheme for global models and tested in a variety of configurations. Off‐line tests compare well to other cloud microphysics schemes with rimed ice used in mesoscale models. Tests in single column and climate mode show expected production of small amounts of rimed ice in the middle troposphere and at high latitudes. The overall climate impacts of rimed ice (hail or graupel) at 100km horizontal grid spacing are small. There are some changes to partitioning between cloud ice and snow that affect upper troposphere water budgets and clouds. High resolution simulations are conducted with a global but regionally refined grid at 14km over the Contiguous United States. High resolution simulations show local production of graupel with realistic size and number concentrations. The maximum graupel frequency at high resolution is over Western U.S. mountain ranges. Differences in total precipitation with the addition of rimed ice in 8 year simulations are statistically significant only for orographic precipitation over the Cascade and Rocky mountains, reducing model biases when rimed ice is included. Rimed ice slightly improves summer precipitation intensity relative to observations. Thus while the global climate impact of rimed ice in stratiform clouds may be negligible, there are potentially important and systematic regional affects, particularly for orographic precipitation. Rimed ice in cumulus clouds is not yet treated, but is an important next step.

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Modeling Analysis and Prediction Program (MAP)