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Integration of airborne and ground observations of nitryl chloride in the Seoul...

Jeong, D., Seco Guix, D. Gu, Y. R. Lee, B. Nault, C. J. Knote, T. J. McGee, J. Sullivan, J. Jimenez-Palacios, Campuzano Jost, D. R. Blake, D. Sanchez, A. Guenther, D. J. Tanner, L. G. Huey, R. Long, B. E. Anderson, S. R. Hall, K. Ullmann, H. J. Shin, S. Herndon, Y. Lee, D. Kim, J. Ahn, and S. Kim (2019), Integration of airborne and ground observations of nitryl chloride in the Seoul metropolitan area and the implications on regional oxidation capacity during KORUS-AQ 2016, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12779-12795, doi:10.5194/acp-19-12779-2019.

Nitryl chloride (ClNO2 ) is a radical reservoir species that releases chlorine radicals upon photolysis. An integrated analysis of the impact of ClNO2 on regional photochemistry in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA) during the Korea–United States Air Quality Study (KORUS-AQ) 2016 field campaign is presented. Comprehensive multiplatform observations were conducted aboard the NASA DC-8 and at two ground sites (Olympic Park, OP; Taehwa Research Forest, TRF), representing an urbanized area and a forested suburban region, respectively. Positive correlations between daytime Cl2 and ClNO2 were observed at both sites, the slope of which was dependent on O3 levels. The possible mechanisms are explored through box model simulations constrained with observations. The overall diurnal variations in ClNO2 at both sites appeared similar but the nighttime variations were systematically different. For about half of the observation days at the OP site the level of ClNO2 increased at sunset but rapidly decreased at around midnight. On the other hand, high levels were observed throughout the night at the TRF site. Significant levels of ClNO2 were observed at both sites for 4–5 h after sunrise. Airborne observations, box model calculations, and back-trajectory analysis consistently show that these high levels of ClNO2 in the morning are likely from vertical or horizontal transport of air masses from the west. Box model results show that chlorine-radical-initiated chemistry can impact the regional photochemistry by elevating net chemical production rates of ozone by ∼ 25 % in the morning.

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Tropospheric Composition Program (TCP)