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Synonyms: 
WB-57
WB57
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Cosmic Dust Collectors

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Cloud, Aerosol, and Precipitation Spectrometer

The CAPS is a combination probe designed around the newest technologies and the experience gained with over 20 years of using similar probes. It meets the goals of measuring a large range of particle sizes--0.5μm to 1.55mm--with one probe, thus minimizing space, cable connections, and data systems necessary for measurement of this range. Today's technology also provides the CAPS the processing power necessary to perform at speeds up to 200m/s. An intuitive graphical user interface, the Particle Analysis and Collection System (PACS), at the host computer, provides simple but powerful control of measurement parameters, while simultaneously displaying on-the-fly size distributions and derived parameters. All data interfaces are done via line drivers meeting the RS-422 electrical specification, allowing cable lengths of up to 100 meters--an improvement over RS-232 lines capable of only 15-meter cable lengths.

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CCD Actinic Flux Spectroradiometers

The CCD Actinic Flux Spectroradiometers (CAFS) developed in the ARIM laboratory will be deployed on the NASA DC-8 for SEAC4RS and DC3 field campaigns. The instruments measure spectrally resolved down- and up-welling in situ ultraviolet and visible actinic flux from approximately 280-650 nm. Photolysis frequencies for photodissociation reactions for species including O3, NO2, CH2O, HONO, HNO3, N2O5, HO2NO2, PAN, H2O2, CH3OOH, CH3ONO2, CH3CH2ONO2, CH3COCH3, CH3CHO, CH3CH2CHO, CHOCHO, CH3COCHO, CH3CH2CH2CHO, CH3COCH2CH3, Br2, BrO, Br2O, BrNO3, BrCl, HOBr, BrONO2, Cl2, ClO, and ClONO2 are calculated from the radiative measurements. Careful calibration techniques and comparison to the NCAR/TUV radiative transfer model improves the accuracy and precision of the measurements. CAFS instruments have a successful heritage of radiation measurements during atmospheric chemistry and satellite validation missions including NASA AVE, PAVE, CR-AVE, TC-4 and ARCTAS campaigns on the WB-57 and DC-8 platforms and during the NSF OASIS ground campaign in Barrow, AK. Similar instruments will be deployed on the NCAR G-V platform as part of the HIAPER Airborne Radiation Package (HARP) as a part of DC3 and SEAC4RS. In situ solar radiation measurements are critical to NASA atmospheric composition research. Actinic flux radiation drives the chemistry of the atmosphere, including the evolution of ozone, greenhouse gases, biomass burning, and other anthropogenic and natural trace constituents. The evolution of boundary layer and tropospheric constituents convected to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere requires knowledge of the complex radiative fields expected during the campaigns. The gases, in turn, control the chemical evolution of aerosols.

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BroadBand Radiometers

The Broadband Radiometers (BBR) consist of modified Kipp & Zonen CM-22 pyranometers (to measure solar irradiance) and CG-4 pyrgeometers (to measure IR irradiance) (see http://www.kippzonen.com/). The modifications to make these instruments more suitable for aircraft use include new instrument housings and amplification of the signal at the sensor. The instruments are run in current-loop mode to minimize the effects of noise in long signal cables. The housing is sealed and evacuated to prevent condensation or freezing inside the instrument. Each BBR has the following properties: Field-of-view: Hemispheric Temperature Range: -65C to +80C Estimated Accuracy: 3-5% Data Rate: 10Hz

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Airborne Laser Isotope Spectrometer

Isotopic CO2 measurements have been identified as an important component of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise's Carbon Cycle Initiative as part of its program in global climate change. The isotopic composition of atmospheric CO2, and especially its 13CO2/ 12CO2 ratio, is an established tool for understanding the details of the global carbon cycle, since this ratio can distinguish between oceanic and terrestrial biospheric sinks of CO2.

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Aircraft Laser Infrared Absorption Spectrometer

ALIAS (Aircraft Laser Infrared Absorption Spectrometer) measures total water, total water isotopes, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide isotope ratios. No other instrument provides real-time measurements of carbon dioxide isotope ratios which are clear identifiers of atmospheric transport (18O/17O/16O for stratospheric intrusion, 13C/12C for anthropogenic signals). ALIAS easily adapts to changing mission priorities and can be configured to measure HCl, CH4, SO2, and N2O by simply replacing a semiconductor laser. These measurements contribute to Atmospheric Composition Focus Area research by providing key data on how convective processes affect stratospheric composition, the development of cirrus particles and their affect on Earth's radiative balance, and health of the ozone layer through measurement of chlorine partitioning.

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Airborne Compact Atmospheric Mapper

Two spectrographs + HD video camera

Air Quality (AQ) 304:520 nm 0.8 nm resolution (NO2, O3, UV absorbing aerosols, SO2, HCHO)

Ocean Color (OC) 460:900 nm 1.5 nm resolution

Video camera (2592x1936 pixels) –3 pixel FWHM

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2D-S Stereo Probe

The 2D-S Stereo Probe is an optical imaging instrument that obtains stereo cloud particle images and concentrations using linear array shadowing. Two diode laser beams cross at right angles and illuminate two linear 128-photodiode arrays. The lasers are single-mode, temperature-stabilized, fiber-coupled diode lasers operating at 45 mW. The optical paths are arbitrarily labeled the “vertical” and “horizontal” probe channels, but the verticality of each channel actually depends on how the probe is oriented on an aircraft. The imaging optical system is based on a Keplerian telescope design having a (theoretical) primary system magnification of 5X, which results in a theoretical effective size of (42.5 µm + 15 µm)/5 = 11.5 µm. However, actual lenses and arrays have tolerances, so it is preferable to measure the actual effective pixel size by dropping several thousands of glass beads with known diameters through the object plane of the optics system.

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