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Anvil Productivities of Tropical Deep Convective Clusters and Their Regional...

Deng, M., J. Mace, and Z. Wang (2016), Anvil Productivities of Tropical Deep Convective Clusters and Their Regional Differences, J. Atmos. Sci., 73, 3467-3487, doi:10.1175/JAS-D-15-0239.1.

The anvil productivities of tropical deep convection are investigated and compared among eight climatological regions using 4 yr of collocated and combined CloudSat and CALIPSO data. For all regions, the convective clusters become deeper while they become wider and tend to be composed of multiple rainy cores. Two strong detrainment layers from deep convection are observed at 6–8 km and above 10 km, which is consistent with the trimodal characteristics of tropical convection that are associated with different divergence, cloud detrainment, and fractional cloudiness. The anvil productivity of tropical deep convection depends on the convection scale, convective life stage or intensity, and large-scale environment. Anvil ice mass ratio related to the whole cluster starts to level off or decrease when the cluster effective scales Weff (the dimension of an equivalent rectangular with the same volume and height as the original cluster) increase to about 200 km wide, while the ratios of anvil scale and volume keep increasing from 0.4 to 0.6 and 0.15 to 0.4, respectively. The anvil clouds above 12 km can count for more than 20% of cluster volume, or more than 50% of total anvil volume, but they only count less than about 2% of total ice mass in the cluster. Anvil production of younger convection of the same Weff is higher than that of the decaying convection. The regional difference in the composite anvil productivities of tropical convective clusters sorted by Weff is subtle, while the occurrence frequencies of different scales of convection vary substantially.

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Research Program: 
Energy & Water Cycle Program (EWCP)
Radiation Science Program (RSP)