Understanding the Sources of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) in Jeddah,...

Nayebare, S. R., O. S. Aburizaiza, A. Siddique, M. M. Hussain, J. Zeb, F. Khatib, D. O. Carpenter, D. R. Blake, and H. A. Khwaja (2022), Understanding the Sources of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Tel., +1-518-474-0516, 711, doi:10.3390/atmos13050711.

Urban air pollution is rapidly becoming a major environmental problem of public concern in several developing countries of the world. Jeddah, the second-largest city in Saudi Arabia, is subject to high air pollution that has severe implications for the health of the exposed population. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) samples were collected for 24 h daily, during a 1-year campaign from 2013 to 2014. This study presents a detailed investigation of PM2.5 mass, chemical composition, and sources covering all four seasons of the year. Samples were analyzed for black carbon (BC), trace elements (TEs), and water-soluble ionic species (IS). The chemical compositions were statistically examined, and the temporal and seasonal patterns were characterized using descriptive analysis, correlation matrices, and elemental enrichment factor (EF). Source apportionment and source locations were performed on PM2.5 samples using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, elemental enrichment factor, and air-mass back trajectory analysis. The 24-h mean PM2.5 and BC concentrations ranged from 33.9 ± 9.1–58.8 ± 25 µg/m3 and 1.8 ± 0.4–2.4 ± 0.6 µg/m3 , respectively. Atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations were well above the 24-h WHO guideline of 15 µg/m3 , with overall results showing significant temporal and seasonal variability. EF defined two broad categories of TEs: anthropogenic (Ni, V, Cu, Zn, Cl, Pb, S, Lu, and Br), and earth-crust derived (Al, Si, Mg, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Sr). The five identified factors resulting from PMF were (1) fossil-fuels/oil combustion (45.3%), (2) vehicular emissions (19.1%), (3) soil/dust resuspension (15.6%), (4) industrial mixed dust (13.5%), and (5) sea-spray (6.5%). This study highlights the importance of focusing control strategies, not only on reducing PM concentration but also on the reduction of components of the PM as well, to effectively protect human health and the environment.

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