# Abdul-Lateef Haji-Ali Raul Tempone May 2, 2017 arXiv:1610 ... Abdul-Lateef Haji-Ali Raul Tempone May

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Multilevel and Multi-index Monte Carlo methods for the

McKean-Vlasov equation

Abdul-Lateef Haji-Ali Raúl Tempone

May 2, 2017

Abstract

We address the approximation of functionals depending on a system of particles, described by stochastic differential equations (SDEs), in the mean-field limit when the number of particles approaches infinity. This problem is equivalent to estimating the weak solution of the limiting McKean-Vlasov SDE. To that end, our approach uses systems with finite numbers of particles and a time-stepping scheme. In this case, there are two discretization parameters: the number of time steps and the number of particles. Based on these two parameters, we consider different variants of the Monte Carlo and Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) methods and show that, in the best case, the optimal work complexity of MLMC, to estimate the functional in one typical setting with an error tolerance of TOL, is O

( TOL−3

) . We also consider a method that uses

the recent Multi-index Monte Carlo method and show an improved work complexity in the same typical setting of O

( TOL−2 log(TOL−1)2

) . Our numerical experiments are carried out

on the so-called Kuramoto model, a system of coupled oscillators. Keywords: Multi-index Monte Carlo, Multilevel Monte Carlo, Monte Carlo, Particle sys-

tems, McKean-Vlasov, Mean-field, Stochastic Differential Equations, Weak Approximation, Sparse Approximation, Combination technique

Class: 65C05 (Monte Carlo methods), 65C30 (Stochastic differential and integral equa- tions), 65C35 (Stochastic particle methods)

1 Introduction

In our setting, a stochastic particle system is a system of coupled d-dimensional stochastic differential equations (SDEs), each modeling the state of a “particle”. Such particle systems are versatile tools that can be used to model the dynamics of various complicated phenomena using relatively simple interactions, e.g., pedestrian dynamics [22, 17], collective animal behavior [10, 9], interactions between cells [8] and in some numerical methods such as Ensemble Kalman filters [25]. One common goal of the simulation of these particle systems is to average some quantity of interest computed on all particles, e.g., the average velocity, average exit time or average number of particles in a specific region.

Under certain conditions, most importantly the exchangeability of particles and sufficient reg- ularity of the SDE coefficients, the stochastic particle system approaches a mean-field limit as the number of particles tends to infinity [28]. Exchangeability of particles refers to the assumption that all permutations of the particles have the same joint distribution. In the mean-field limit, each particle follows a single McKean-Vlasov SDE where the advection and/or diffusion coefficients depend on the distribution of the solution to the SDE [11]. In many cases, the objective is to ap- proximate the expected value of a quantity of interest (QoI) in the mean-field limit as the number of particles tend to infinity, subject to some error tolerance, TOL. While it is possible to approxi- mate the expectation of these QoIs by estimating the solution to a nonlinear PDE using traditional numerical methods, such methods usually suffer from the curse of dimensionality. Indeed, the cost

of these method is usually of O (

TOL− w d

) for some constant w > 1 that depends on the par-

ticular numerical method. Using sparse numerical methods alleviates the curse of dimensionality but requires increasing regularity as the dimensionality of the state space increases. On the other hand, Monte Carlo methods do not suffer from this curse with respect to the dimensionality of the state space. This work explores different variants and extensions of the Monte Carlo method when

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Monte Carlo methods for stochastic particle systems in the mean-field 2

the underlying stochastic particle system satisfies certain crucial assumptions. We theoretically show the validity of some of these assumptions in a somewhat general setting, while verifying the other assumptions numerically on a simple stochastic particle system, leaving further theoretical justification to a future work.

Generally, the SDEs that constitute a stochastic particle system cannot be solved exactly and their solution must instead be approximated using a time-stepping scheme with a number of time steps, N . This approximation parameter and a finite number of particles, P , are the two approxi- mation parameters that are involved in approximating a finite average of the QoI computed for all particles in the system. Then, to approximate the expectation of this average, we use a Monte Carlo method. In such a method, multiple independent and identical stochastic particle systems, approx- imated with the same number of time steps, N , are simulated and the average QoI is computed from each and an overall average is then taken. Using this method, a reduction of the variance of the estimator is achieved by increasing the number of simulations of the stochastic particle system or increasing the number of particles in the system. Section 3.1 presents the Monte Carlo method more precisely in the setting of stochastic particle systems. Particle methods that are not based on Monte Carlo were also discussed in [2, 3]. In these methods, a single simulation of the stochastic particle system is carried out and only the number of particles is increased to reduce the variance.

As an improvement of Monte Carlo methods, the Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method was first introduced in [21] for parametric integration and in [13] for SDEs; see [14] and references therein for an overview. MLMC improves the efficiency of the Monte Carlo method when only an approximation, controlled with a single discretization parameter, of the solution to the underlying system can be computed. The basic idea is to reduce the number of required samples on the finest, most accurate but most expensive discretization, by reducing the variability of this approximation with a correlated coarser and cheaper discretization as a control variate. More details are given in Section 3.2 for the case of stochastic particle systems. The application of MLMC to particle systems has been investigated in many works [4, 17, 27]. The same concepts have also been applied to nested expectations [14]. More recently, a particle method applying the MLMC methodology to stochastic particle systems was also introduced in [26] achieving, for a linear system with a diffusion coefficient that is independent of the state variable, a work complexity of O

( TOL−2(log(TOL−1))5

) .

Recently, the Multi-index Monte Carlo (MIMC) method [19] was introduced to tackle high di- mensional problems with more than one discretization parameter. MIMC is based on the same concepts as MLMC and improves the efficiency of MLMC even further but requires mixed regular- ity with respect to the discretization parameters. More details are given in Section 3.3 for the case of stochastic particle systems. In that section, we demonstrate the improved work complexity of MIMC compared with the work complexity of MC and MLMC, when applied to a stochastic particle system. More specifically, we show that, when using a naive simulation method for the particle sys-

tem with quadratic complexity, the optimal work complexity of MIMC is O (

TOL−2 log ( TOL−1

)2)

when using the Milstein time-stepping scheme and O (

TOL−2 log ( TOL−1

)4) when using the Euler-

Maruyama time-stepping scheme. Finally, in Section 4, we provide numerical verification for the assumptions that are made throughout the current work and the derived rates of the work com- plexity.

In what follows, the notation a . b means that there exists a constant c that is independent of a and b such that a < cb.

2 Problem Setting

Consider a system of P exchangeable stochastic differential equations (SDEs) where for p = 1 . . . P , we have the following equation for Xp|P (t) ∈ Rd

{ dXp|P (t) = A

( t,Xp|P (t), λXP (t)

) dt+ B

( t,Xp|P (t), λXP (t)

) dWp(t)

Xp|P (0) = x 0 p

(1)

whereXP (t) = {Xq|P (t)}Pq=1 and for some (possibly stochastic) functions, A : [0,∞)×Rd×P(Rd)→ Rd and B : [0,∞) × Rd × P(Rd) → Rd × Rd and P(Rd) is the space of probability measures over

Monte Carlo methods for stochastic particle systems in the mean-field 3

Rd. Moreover,

λXP (t) def

= 1

P

P∑

q=1

δXq|P (t) ∈ P(Rd),

where δ is the Dirac measure, is called the empirical measure. In this setting, {Wp}p≥1 are mutually independent d-dimensional Wiener processes. If, moreover, {x0p}p≥1 are i.i.d., then under certain conditions on the smoothness and form of A and B [28], as P → ∞ for any p ∈ N, the Xp|∞ stochastic process satisfies

{ dXp|∞(t) = A(t,Xp|∞(t), µt∞)dt+ B(t,Xp|∞(t), µ

t ∞)dWp(t)

Xp|∞(0) = x 0 p,

(2)

where µt∞ ∈ P(Rd) is the corresponding mean-field measure. Under some smoothness and bounded- ness conditions on A and B, the measure µt∞ induces a probability density function (pdf), ρ∞(t, ·), that is the Radon-Nikodym derivative with respect to the Lebesgue measure. Moreover, ρ∞ satisfies the McKean-Vlasov equation

∂ρ∞(t, x)

∂t +

P∑

p=1

∂

∂xp (A(t, xp, µt∞)ρ∞(t, x))−

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