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Patterns of carbon monoxide in the middle atmosphere and effects of solar...

Ruzmaikin, A., J. N. Lee, and D. L. Wu (2014), Patterns of carbon monoxide in the middle atmosphere and effects of solar variability, Advances in Space Research, 54, 320-326.

We determine the spatial-time patterns of zonally averaged carbon monoxide (CO) in the middle atmosphere by applying Principle Component Analysis to the CO data obtained from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements on the Aura satellite in 2004– 2012. The first two principal components characterize more than 90% of the CO variability. Both principal components are localized in the low thermosphere near the mesopause. The first principal component is asymmetric relative to the poles. It has opposite signs in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere at mid to high latitudes and strongly oscillates with an annual periodicity. The second principal component has the same sign in both hemispheres and oscillates mainly with a semi-annual frequency. Both principal components are modulated by the 11-year solar cycle and display short-term variations. To test possible correlations of these variations with the short term solar ultraviolet (UV) variability we use the simultaneous measurements of the UV solar radiance from the Solar-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) on the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) satellite to investigate the correlation between CO in the middle atmosphere and solar UV in 2004–2012. Using a wavelet coherence technique a weak, intermittent 27-day signal is detected in high-frequency parts of the CO principal components.